1. Renaissance and Baroque dance that was cultivated as an independent instrumental piece
  2. 1st of 4 core movements of the solo suite
  3. German
  4. 4/4, moderate


  1. Baroque dance movement in triple meter
  2. Originated in 18th century, became a regular memeber of the solo suite


  1. Baroque dance movement in triple meter
  2. Spanish, usually slow and majestic
  3. Became a regular member of the solo suite and chamber suite, following the courante

Gigue (2)

  1. Middle Ages: bowed stringed instrument-fiddle or rebec
  2. Root of the modern word for violin in German; Geige


  1. An elegant dance movement in triple meter: 3/4
  2. Enormous popularity
  3. Usually binary form w/ regular phrases constructed of 4-measure units
  4. Begins w/out upbeat and cadences on the strong beat; hemiola

Gracious Baroque dance movement in duple meter

Baroque dance movement in moderately quick duple meter and binary form


  1. Festive, processional, couple dance of Polish origin in a moderate tempo
  2. Singing, triple meter, lacks upbeats, has internal short repeated sections


  1. Lively, simple Baroque dance in triple meter
  2. French harpsichord music

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Double (1)

  1. To perform or to specify the performance of the same note or notes by two parts
  2. Either at the same pitch level or in octaves

Hornpipe (2)

  1. Reedpipe w/ a bell made of animal horn
  2. Some fitted w/ bags


  1. Composition establishing the pitch or key of a following piece
  2. Short piano piece
  3. Introductory orchestral piece that eludes to the opening scene of a drama, such as an opera


  1. The most fully developed procedure of imitative counterpoint
  2. Theme is stated sucessfully in all voices of the polyphonic texture
  3. Tonally established, continuously expanded, opposed and reestablished


  1. Melody or melodie fragment on which a composition or a major portionof one is based
  2. Principally a term in fugue


  1. In fugue, statment of subject immediately following its statement in the prevailing key
  2. Tonal (diatonic) or Real (5th up or down)

In a fugue, subordinate subject that accompanies statements of the principal subject.
Bridge Passage

  1. Transitional passage whose primary function is to connect 2 passages of greater weight or importance in the work as a whole
  2. Have modulation between keys of 1st and 2nd themes of a work in sonata form


  1. Subsidary passage occuring between passages of primary thematic importance
  2. Fugue-Modulation, After Exposition
  3. Rondo-passage occuring between statements of the principal recurring theme


  1. 1st major section of a sonata
  2. Statement of the subject in imitation by the several voices


  1. Strutural alteration of musical material as opposed to exposition of material
  2. Sonata-Central section of a movement
  3. Sonata-rondo, or ritornello-Sonata form

All most exactly the exposition, stays in home key
Instrumental music following regular music forms; concluding section

  1. Work for one or more solo instruments
  2. Usually in several movements
  3. Changes each time period

Sonata form

  1. Most characteristic form for an individual mvt in instrumental musci from the Classical period to the 20th century
  2. Exposition-Development-Recapitulation
  3. Binary


  1. Multisectional form, movement, or composition based on the principle of multiple recurrence of a theme or section in the tonic key
  2. ABACA-5pt Rondo
  3. ABACABA-7pt Rondo
  4. Sonata-rondo form ABA
  5. Ternary

Kleine Nachtmusik

  1. A Little Night Music
  2. Mozart’s Notturno or Serenade in G Major for string ensemble K. 525
  3. 1787
  4. 2nd mvt; minuet lost
  5. perofrmed w/ orchestra
  6. intended for one player on each part

Concerto Grosso

Concerto for a small group of soloists (the concertino) and orchestra (the tutti or ripieno)

Soloists in a concerto grosso

  1. Large ensemble in a concerto grosso
  2. Played w/ double tutti parts


  1. In a concerto, the ensemble as distinct from the soloist(s)
  2. A passage for the ensemble


  1. Instrumental section of an opera, cantata, strophic aria, or other vocal work
  2. Recurring tutti section of a concerto mvt or a da capo aria

Ritornello form

  1. Characteristic form of the first and often the the last mvt of late-Baroque or classical concerto
  2. Based on an alternation of tutti and solo sections

Brandenburg Concertos

  1. Six concertos composed by Bach
  2. Dedicated to Christian Ludwig Margrave of Brandenburg
  3. March 24, 1721
  4. 2,4,;5 are most like the concerto grosso-violin in No. 4 and harpsichord in No. 5 links them to the solo concerto

Antonio Vivaldi

  1. Venice- 1678-1741
  2. Composer, taught violin by Father-Giovanni Battista
  3. Ordained as a priest in 1703
  4. Over 500 concertos

The Seasons

  1. Oratorio for soloists, chorus, and orchestra by Vivaldi, German libretto by Gottfried van Swieten
  2. Based on an english poem by James Thomson
  3. Spring-Winter in order

Diverse ensemble of voices, instruments, or both, or a composition for such an ensemble

  1. In music for soloist, esp. concerto or other ensemble accompanied works
  2. Improvised or written-out ornamental passage
  3. Performed by soloist, usually over the penultimate or antepenultimate not/harmony of a prominent cadence

Large stringed keyboard instrument, set of keys/levers that operate a system of hammers
Chamber music
Music written to be performed by a small ensemble; instrumental; one person on a part
Variation (Theme w/ Variation)
Technique of modifying a given musical idea

  1. Vocal/instrumental work intended for performance in the evening
  2. Addressed to a lover, friend, or person of rank

Secular instrumental works for chamber ensemble or soloist
Instrumental, occasionally vocal, intended for performance at night
Trio Sonata

  1. Most common type of Baroque instrument chamber music
  2. 3 Parts-2 upper lines, same register and a Basso Continuo
  3. 4 Performers

Sonata da chiesa

  1. Work for instrument ensemble 1-7 or more sections/mvts
  2. Contrast in meter, tempo, and texture
  3. Written 1 or more melody instruments

Sonata de camera

  1. Work for instrument ensemble
  2. 1 or more melody instrument
  3. Associated w/ dance

String Quartet
Compostition wrote for 4 solo string instruments
String Quintet
Quintet w/ Strings
String Trio
Trio w/ strings
Composition for 3 instrument soloists

  1. Greek theory, the unison
  2. Then dissonance
  3. Middle ages-several instruments

Symphony; Baroque: Sonata or canzona
Work for orchestra in multiple movements
Ludwig van Beethoven

  1. 1770-1827
  2. Composer
  3. Studied w/ Father and Bonn courts
  4. Opera and organ director
  5. Possibly studied w/ Mozart


Beethoven’s Symphony No. 3 in Eb major Op. 55 (1803); Homage to Napoleon
Pastoral Symphony

  1. Beethoven’s Symphony No. 6 in F Major Op. 68 (1808)
  2. Mvt 1- Awakening of Cheerful Feelings on Arrival in the Country
  3. Mvt 2-Scene by the Brook
  4. Mvt 3-Merrymaking of the Country Folk
  5. Mvt 4-Storm
  6. Mvt 5-Song of the Shepherds

Absolute music
Instrumental music that is ;free of; any explicit connection w/ words beyond simple indications of tempo and genre

Program music

  1. Music that attempts to express or depict once or more nonmusical idea, image, or event
  2. Composer usually indicates the ;program; by a suggestive title or preface, which may be quite vague and detailed

Id;e fixe
Berlioz’s term for the recurring musical idea linking the several movements of his symphonie fantastique and associated in its program with the image of the beloved
Tone poem
Symphonic poem
Symphonic poem

  1. Symphony by Berlioz, Op. 14
  2. Important example of program music
  3. 5 mvts which are united by a recurring theme; idée fixe

Moldau/Má Vlast
Cycle of 6 symphonic poems composed by Smetana on subjects from his native Czechoslavakia

  1. Satirical Parody of a stage work
  2. Often an Opera or ballad Opera

Choral symphony

  1. Popular name for Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9 in D minor
  2. 4th and final mvt
  3. Introduction to which quotes themes of preceeding mvts; Allegro-Scherzo and trio-Adagio

Singable or song-like
Dance music

Baroque dances

Dies Irae

  1. Day of Wrath
  2. Comes in to play in Symphonie fantastique

Mannheim steamroller

  1. Invented many special effects in music
  2. Kept creating more and more

Prix de Rome

  1. Composition competition in France
  2. 1830; Berlioz won it

Program Symphony

  1. Orchestral work in the form of a sympony
  2. Having a descriptive title or program
  3. Much like a symphonic poem

Rasumovsky Quartets
Beethoven’s strings quartets dedicated to Andrei Rasumovsky; a russian count; Used russian folk songs and the russian rhythm
Rocket theme
An arpeggio theme rising through several octaves
Symphonie fantastique

  1. Berlioz’s symphony composed for Harriet Smithson
  2. 5 mvt
  3. Id;e fixe

Scotch snap

  1. Reverse dotting
  2. Short notes come on the beat

Terraced dynamics

  1. Dramatic effects for opera
  2. Sporadic dynamics

Thematic development
Alteration of themes for the sake of changing their character while retaining their essential identity