1. Shape of a piece defined by pitches and rythms, dynamics, and timbres
  2. Also applys to abstractions of generalizations drawn from groups of compostitions with the intent of comparing them
  3. This sense of a form is defined by a loose group of general features

Pattern of sound that is created by the elements of a work
Music that only has one line of melody without accompaniment
Music with combined lines, more than 1 or 2
Music with melodic interest concentrated in one voice and their is an accompaniment
Chordal Style

  1. Style or texture with chords whose pitches sound at the same time
  2. Homophonic; strict number of pitches stay the same, Free numbers vary


  1. Statement of a melody or motive by two or more parts in sucession
  2. Each continues as other enters
  3. Same pitch level-unison
  4. Different pitch levels-common


  1. Combination of two or more melodic lines
  2. Horizontal differences of parts can be perceived and differentiated


  1. In Greece, Monochord-not for music making-used for acoustical experiments
  2. In medieval Europe-Psaltery
  3. In Roman Catholic Mass-Prayer consecrating the elements of communion-immediately following Sanctus
  4. Rule or instruction for realizing a composition
  5. Imitation of a complete sugject by 1 or more voices at fixed intervals of pitch and time


  1. Perpetual canon
  2. Each voice returns to the beginning
  3. Extended exact imitation

Figured Bass/Thorough Bass/Basso Continuo

  1. Arabic numbers added to bass parts
  2. Independent continuing bass line throughout a piece

Stile Rappresentativo

  1. Expressive
  2. Dramatic/theatrical style of recitative used in the earliest operas and semidramatic workds of the 1st decades of the 17th Century

Any type of Italian song, solo, with accompaniment-instrumental

  1. In Western tradition of art music, modification of study usually by addition of notes
  2. Make it more beautiful and effective

Form of musical expression in which the human voice has the principal role and is the carrier of a text
Art Song

  1. Song intended for the concert repertory
  2. Distinct from a folk or popular song


  1. Song
  2. Around since Middle Ages and has refferred to a very wide range of both poetry and music cultivated by all classes of society


  1. Instrumental composition of the 16th and 17th Centuries
  2. Prototype was French Chanson
  3. Italian Art Song

Folk music/Folksong

  1. Music in oral tradition
  2. Relatively simple
  3. Widely understood
  4. Rural provenance
  5. Preformed by nonprofessionals


  1. German poem
  2. Usually lyric and strophic
  3. Song with poem as text
  4. Art Song


  1. Poem-units with the same # of lines, rhyme scheme, and meter
  2. Music-repetition of the same music for all units, distinct form


  1. Without internal repetitions, esp. with respect to the setting of a strophic
  2. New music for each stanza

Word Painting

Hire a custom writer who has experience.
It's time for you to submit amazing papers!

order now

Musical illustration of the meaning of words in vocal music, esp. the literal meaning of individual words/phrases


Short musical pattern that is repeated persistently throughout a performance or composition, or a section of one

Franz Peter Schubert

  1. Born: January 31, 1797 in Vienna
  2. Died: November 19, 1828 same place
  3. Composer
  4. Early instruction from Father, violin and Brother Ignaz, piano
  5. Sang in imperial chapel choir and studied at Stadtkonvikt school from 1808


  1. Melody
  2. Solo song with sccompaniment
  3. Usually the French Art Song of the 19th and 20th Centuries

Gabriel Fauré

  1. Born: May 12, 1845 in Pamiers
  2. Died: November 4, 1924 in Paris
  3. Composer
  4. Nearly 100 Songs, Piano pieces, Chamber music, Requiem, 1 Opera-Pénélope (1913)
  5. Professor of Composition at the Paris Conservatory, Organist at Madeleine, POC at Ecole Niedermeyer-director

Song Cycle
Group of songs for solo voice and piano constituting a literary and musical unit

  1. Poet’s Love: Schumann, op. 48 (1840)
  2. Song cycle using poetry by Heinrich Heine

Schone Mullerin

  1. Fair Maid of the Mill
  2. 20 Songs by Schubert, op.25 D.795
  3. Wilhelm Muller


  1. Winter Journey
  2. Cycle of 20 songs Schuber, D.911
  3. 2 Parts
  4. Muller

An die ferne Geliebte
Cycle by Beethoven; To the Far Loving
Frauenliebe und-Leben

  1. Woman’s Love and Life
  2. Schumann cycle of 8 songs for voice and piano
  3. Poems written by Adalbert von Chamisso
  4. Published with same title


  1. Self-contained composition for solo voice
  2. Usually with accompaniment and occuring within the context of a larger form such as opera, oratorio, or cantana

A group of more than a few notes sung to a single syllable, esp. in liturgical chant

  1. In music for a soloist, esp. a concerto or other work with accompanying ensemble, and improvised or written-out ornamental passage performed by the soloist
  2. Usually over the penultimate or antepenultimate note or harmony of prominent cadence
  3. Orch stops on I6/4; Trill on V; orch comes back on I; Orch closes after brief coda

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

  1. Vienna 1756-1791
  2. Composer
  3. Pupil of his father, Leopold Mozart
  4. Ability at age 4
  5. Toured w/ Mother in Sept. 1777

Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen

  1. Songs of a Wayferer
  2. 4 songs for low voice and orchestra or piano by Mahler
  3. Setting is his own poems
  4. 1st symphony, 1st movement based off of the 2nd song
  5. Last song is quoted in the slow movement of this symphony

Des Knaben Wunderhorn

  1. A group of German folk-song texts collected and published in three volumes by Ludwig Arnim and Clemens Brentano
  2. Mahler composed settings of a # of these texts


  1. Songs on the Death of Children; elegy to the dearh of 2 of poets children; Friedrich Ruckert
  2. Cycle of 5 songs with orchestra or piano accompaniment by Mahler
  3. 1901-04

Das Lied von der Erde

  1. Cycle of 6 songs by Mahler (symphony)
  2. For alto (baritone), tenor, and orchestra
  3. Composed in 1908-9
  4. German translations by Hans Bethge of 8th and 9th century Chinese poems

Gustav Mahler

  1. 1850-1911
  2. Composer and Conductor
  3. Studied in VIenna
  4. From Bohemia

A cappella
Choral music without instrumental accompaniment
Isorhythm (color, talea)

  1. Repetition of a rythmic pattern throughout a voice part; 2 parts
  2. Color:Melodic Pattern
  3. Talea: Rythmic Pattern


Stylistic device or a self-contained composition characterized by the distribution of a melodic line between 2 voices in such a way that it sounds as if the other is silent


  1. Particular structure
  2. Tenor derived from chant as a foundation for upper voices
  3. Polyphonic setting of a sacred Latin text
  4. Sacred music


  1. Part that "holds" or is based on a pre-existing melody
  2. Often in a liturgical chant

Guillaume de Machaut

  1. Rheims 1300-1377
  2. Composer and poet
  3. 1 Mass, 1 Hocket, Several narratives, numberous lyric poems
  4. Texts to his own songs; some are interludes to his long poems

Josquin des Prez

  1. Picardy? 1440-1521 Condé-sur-Eschaut
  2. Mostly Masses, motets
  3. French and Italian

J. S. Bach

  1. 1685-1750 Germany
  2. Composer and Organist
  3. Baroque
  4. 2 wives, 13 children
  5. Lots of pieces, piano, etc.

Johannes Brahms

  1. Hamburg 1833-1897 Vienna
  2. Composer and pianist
  3. Close with Schumanns
  4. Sacred motets, Symphonies, etc.


  1. Vocal setting, polyphonic and unaccompanied
  2. Close to French Chanson
  3. Poetry; line-by-line
  4. Chordal style
  5. Animated by imitation and without rhetorical extremes

Luca Marenzio

  1. Coccaglio-Brescia 1553/4- 1599 Rome
  2. Composer
  3. Virtuouso Madrigalist of Italy during the Late Renaissance
  4. Nearly 25 books of madrigals, others…

John Farmer

  1. England 1570-1601
  2. Composer
  3. Associated with Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin
  4. English madrigals-best known work, volume (1599)
  5. Single piece-Triumphes of Oriana

Claudio Monteverdi

  1. Italy 1567-1643
  2. Composer
  3. Pupil of Ingegneri
  4. Served maestro di cappella, took holy orders
  5. Wrote masses, spiritual madrigals, other sacred vocal workds, and secular madrigals


  1. Composite vocal genre of the Baroque era
  2. Consists of recitatives, ariosos, and set-pieces (i.e. arias, duets, and choruses)
  3. Secular/Non-secular, multi-faceted, wide range of arrangments


  1. Congregational song or hymn of the German Protestant Church
  2. from "Choral"-German plainsong
  3. 1st referred to style of performance

Chorale Cantata

  1. Cantata based on words, or both words and melody of a Choral
  2. J.S. Bach wrote several
  3. Final strophe is usually a relatively simple 4-part setting of the melody

Chorale fugue

  1. Work for organ
  2. 1st phrase of a chorale is made the subject of a fugue
  3. Several written by J.S. Bach and Johann Pachelbel

Chorale motet

  1. Polyphonic vocal work in the style of a motet and based on a German chorale melody
  2. Cantus firmus
  3. Later: Instruments would often double voice part


  1. Most fully developed procedure of imitative counterpoint theme is stated successfully in all voices of polyphonic texture
  2. Changed through ages, evolved; like theme

Bel Canto

  1. Beautiful singing
  2. Singing that emphasizes beauty of sound
  3. Even tone throughout the whole range of the voice
  4. Legato, depends on breath control mastery


  1. Famous Castrati Jan. 24, 1705-July 15,1782
  2. Successful in Naples and Rome and various other places
  3. Movie made


  1. Style of text setting that imitates and emphasizes the natural inflections, rhythms, and syntax of speech
  2. Allows for simple music and emphasis of words


  1. Text of an opera or oratorio
  2. Originally, and more specifically, the small book containing the text that was printed for the audience

Composition for orchestra intended as an introduction to an opera or other dramatic or vocal work
Opera buffa
Comic Opera
Opera seria

  1. Serious opera
  2. Set to Italian librettos, esp. those of Apostolo Zeno and Pietro Metastasio
  3. Usually composed by Italians, Germans, and Austrians
  4. Performed in all major European countries but France
  5. 3 acts containg recitatives, da capo exit arias, 25ish pieces


  1. Musico-dramatic work with a German text, esp. a work written in the 18th/early 19th Century
  2. Spoken dialogue alternates with songs and sometimes with ensembles, choruses, or more extendd musical pieces


An extended musical drama with a text based on religious subject matter

Passion music

  1. Musical setting of Jesus’ sufferings and death as related by one of the four Evangelists
  2. Plainsong, Responsorial, Dramatic, motet or through-composed, and Oratorio

G.F. Handel

  1. Halle, GermanyFeb. 23, 1685-London, England April 14, 1759
  2. Composer
  3. Pupil of Zachow
  4. Friend of Teleman
  5. Baroque


  1. Oratorio in 3 parts for soloists, chorus, and orchestra by Handel
  2. 1st performed in Dublin in 1742
  3. Text completed by Charles Jonnens from various Bible passages
  4. 1st published in 1767
  5. Parts revised later

Israel in Egypt

  1. Oratorio for soloists, chorus, and orchestra by Handel
  2. 1st performed in London in 1739
  3. Text is based on Bible passages and the Prayer Book Psalter

The Creation
An oratorio by Haydn for soloists, chorus, and Orchestra

  1. Oratorio for soloists, chorus, and orchestra by Mendelssohn, op. 70
  2. Completed 1846; revised 1847
  3. Text from Old Testament
  4. English 1st performed at the Birmingham Festival in 1846
  5. In Hamburg, Germany in 1847

Agnus Dei

  1. 5th selection of Ordinary Mass
  2. Consists of 3 acclamations
  3. Each begins with Agnus Dei
  4. Derived from John 1:29
  5. Associated with communion
  6. Widely used in Anglican Church


  1. 3rd part of the Sanctus of the Mass
  2. Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord Matt 21:9
  3. Seperate composition in polyphonic works


  1. 3rd selection of Ordinary;Mass
  2. Omitted at cerain feasts
  3. Nicene creed
  4. Celebratory performance; polyphonic settings begin


  1. 2nd selection of Ordinary Mass; except in Advent, Lent, and other various times
  2. 1st phrase is intoned by the celbrant
  3. Choir continues with the phrase ;Et in terra pax;


An acclamation occurring in the phrase ‘Hosanna in excelsis’ in the Sanctus of the Mass


  1. 1st selection of Ordinary Mass
  2. Text consists of 3 petitions; Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison
  3. Each stated 3 times
  4. Gregorian melodies often reflect this, Gregorian-like


  1. Most important service of the Roman rite
  2. Deriving from a ritual commemoration of the Last Supper
  3. Re-enacts Crucifixition
  4. Ordinary and Proper

Ordinary mass

  1. Text stays the same all year
  2. Kyrie
  3. Gloria
  4. Credo
  5. Sanctus
  6. Agnus Dei

Proper mass
Text and melody change from day to day


  1. 4th selection of Ordinary mass
  2. Begins w/ 3 fold acclamation; sung by choir following preface
  3. 1st part from Isaiah 6:3
  4. One of the oldest parts
  5. Holy, Hosanna, Benedictus, Hosanna

Dies irae

  1. Day of Wrath
  2. One of 4 sequences retained by the Council of Trent
  3. Part of Requiem Mass in 16th Century
  4. Rhymed sequence
  5. Text attributed to Thomas of Celano

Ein Deutches Requiem

  1. German Requiem
  2. Soprano, Baritone, Chorus, and Orchestra by Brahms, Op. 45
  3. 1857-68
  4. 7 mvts are set to texts freely adapted from the Bible

Requiem Mass

  1. Mass for Dead
  2. Also, in 20th Cent., works that are not strictly liturgical, but still for the dead


  1. Repetition of a phrase of melody or a harmonic progression at different pitch levels
  2. Rising or falling pitches by the same or similar interval