The art that uses tones
3 kinds of sound
1. Noises (accidental or incidental)
2. Words (which have lexical meaning)
3. Tones (which we listen to for their qualities in relation to other tones and for their expressive significance)
4 qualities of tones
1. Timbre
2. Loudness
3. Duration
4. Pitch
Flute is in what key?
French horn sounds what interval down?
Year 1000
Invention of the musical staff (Guido)
Year 1750
Death of J.S. Bach
Year 1450
Rise of Flemish School (marked the end of medieval music and the beginning of the Renaissance)
Year 1150
First important school of polyphonic music (St.Martial)
Year 850
Beginning of polyphony. Pre-Christian music was mostly Greek Christian Chant (Jewish Synagogue). Led to other chants.
2nd School of polyphony
Notre Dame
Western music began in this year
A.D. 800
Music has changed this many times
Years western music has changed and what the periods are called
1. Ars Nova (1300)
2. Nuove Musiche (1600)
3. New Music (1990)
Dates of the Middle Ages
Periods of the later Middle Ages
1. Romanesque
2. Early Gothic
3. Late Gothic
Dates of the Renaissance
Dates of Baroque
Dates of Rococo, Classicism, and Romanticism
Dates of Twentieth Century music
Most international period
Term used in Germany during the 17th and 18th centuries for a keyboard instrument (clavichord). The clavichord was used in the early 19th century for piano. Anything that produces a sound. Six types.
Six types of instruments
1. Idiophone
2. Membranophone
3. Chordophone
4. Aerophone
5. Electronophone
6. Corpophone
Wind instruments
All instruments in which the sound generating medium is an enclosed column of air, especially those sounded by means of the breath. The technical term for such instruments is aerophone, but aerophone refers to all instruments in which air or wind is the primary agent of sound production, whether or not the vibrations produced are those of an enclosed column of air and whether or not the player’s breath is the wind supply. This group usually excludes the organ, accordion. Divided into two subgroups: woodwinds and brass winds.
Woodwind Instruments
A subgroup of Wind Instruments. Includes the flute, oboe, bassoon, and clarinet. Homogenous in terms of pitch-changing apparatus. All have side holes that can be covered or left open so as to vary the sounding length of the tube. Classified by single reed, double reed, or no reed.
Brass wind instruments
A subgroup of Wind Instruments. Includes trumpets, horns, trombones, ophicleides, and tubas. A homogeneous group which are all sounded by vibration of the player’s lips, which are supported by a cup- or funnel shaped mouthpiece.
Percussion Instruments
Sounded by shaking or striking. Two categories: membranophones and idiophones
Percussion instruments with a definite pitch
kettledrum, glockenspiel, xylophone, celesta, chimes (or tubular bells), anvil, marimba, tubaphone, and vibraharp.
Percussion instruments without a definite pitch
snare drum, tenor drum, bass drum, tambourine, triangle, cymbals, tamtam (gong), castanets, rattle wood block, chinese temple block, thunder machine
self vibrating instrument
an instrument in which sound is produced by the vibration of a membrane
any instrument in which sound is produced by the vibration of a string
an instrument in which a column of air is the primary vibrating system. In most cases, the player sets the air in motion by blowing. There are three main categories: flutes, brass instruments, reeds
an electronic instrument
body instrument
Hornbostel and Sachs
created the system of classifying instruments
the application of timbre to music
note values which remain the same throughout a piece or a section
any deliberate upsetting of the normal pulse of meter
the ratio 3:2. In terms of pitch, it is the ratio of the lengths of two strings that together sound a perfect fifth. In terms of rhythm, it refers to the use of three notes of equal value in the time normally occupied by two notes.
the speed at which music is performed, i.e., the rate per unit of time of metrical pulses in performance
in performance, the practice of alternating the relationship among written note values and making the established pulse flexible
a succession of musical tones as contrasted with harmony. Application of pitch in music to create a line
a natural division of the melodic line, comparable to a sentence of speech
the briefest intelligible and self contained fragment
difference between the highest and lowest pitches an instrument can sound
notes that are in successive degrees of a scale
successive notes that form intervals larger than a 2nd
any simultaneous combination of sounds. synonymous with chord. Pitch in music to create depth
more than 1 complete musical texture occurring at the same time
the difference in pitch between two tones
simultaneous occurrence of several tones (usually 3 or more)
consonance and dissonance
effect produced by certain intervals
system of music in which specific hierarchical pitch relationships are based on a key center or “tonic”
gregorian chant
The plainsong or liturgical chant of the Roman Catholic Church. It is one of the five principal repertories of Latin liturgical chant of the Middle Ages, the others being Old Roman, Ambrosian, Gallican, and Mozarabic. Unaccompanied melodies set to latin text of the liturgy including both the mass and the office. It is named for St. Gregory the pope from 590 to 604. Book of Psalms is the principal source of texts.
Monophonic Christian liturgical chant in free rhythm as distinct from measured music. Also called plainchant.
Contains 11 musical items. The most important service of the Roman rite, deriving from a ritual commemoration of the Last Supper. The term is taken from the words of dismissal of the congregation at the end of the ceremony. By the 7th century it had developed into a liturgy of chants, prayers, and readings placed before and after the central canon, and a distinction was made between those parts of the liturgy whose texts and music were appropriate only to a particular feast (Proper) and those that could be used any day (Ordinary)
Mass Proper
These are the oldest in written tradition divided among chants employing antiphonal psalmody. There are 5: Introit, Gradual, Alleluia (or Tract), Offertory, and Communion
Mass Ordinary
First five items have so often been set by composers that they are sometimes thought of as a unit. Five parts are kyrie, gloria, credo, sanctus, agnus dei
musical system based on the use of a mode
there are 8 of these scales used in the church mostly
a group of more than a few notes sung to a single syllable
characterized by the singing of only one note per syllable
Middle Ages
500-1430. Most often defined with reference to the period following it (renaissance). Sometimes described as Gothic (Europe).
unmetered single line, monophonic
Performance types of the chant
1.Responsorial (solo vs. larger group)
2. Antiphonal (2 choirs alternate)
3. Direct (everybody at once)
solo vs. larger group
2 choirs alternate
everybody at once
denotes tonal material of music arranged according to rising pitches
genre or style determined by harmonic factors, typical rhythms, types of instruments, etc. Patterns of events over the course of a piece.
(2) A B
(3) A B A
A A’ A” or AAB. repetition of the same music for all units of a poem
ABC. Without internal repetitions. Different music for each stanza of text.
flow and instrumentation. all about layers, relationships between layers or levels of activity in a piece. ex: monophonic, polyphonic, homophonic
a multi-sectional form, movement, or composition based on the principle of multiple recurrence of a theme or section in the tonic key. Typical designs are ABACA or ABACADA, ABACABA
Guillaume de Machaut
(1300-1377) Composer and poet. In both arts the foremost figure of the 14th century France. Secretary to the King of Bohemia. Composed lais, ballades, rondeaux, virelays, motets, 1 mass, 1 hocket
formes fixes
group of musical forms that dominated the secular poetry and music of france in the 14th and 15th centuries ex:ballade, rondeaux, virelai
one of the three formes fixes prominent in poetry of france in the 14th and 15th centuries. Three 7 or 8 line stanzas all with the same metrical and rhyme scheme
one of the three forms of formes fixes, prominent in poetry and music of france in the 14th and 15th centuries. common form has 8 lines in the pattern of ABaAabAB
on of the three formes fixes prominent in poetry and music of France in the 14th and 15th centuries. poetic form is AbbaA and music is XYYXX
any of the composer/poets southern france in the 12th and 13th centuries. composed in the language of old occitan. ex: raimbout de vaqeiras. wrote secular medieval songs
any of the poet/musicians of northern france in the 12th and 13th centuries. songs are in old french. strophic and monophonic. ex: machaut wrote secular medieval songs
upper case letters
same text and music
lower case letters
same music, different text
multiple voices, multiple parts. based on a cantus firmus. polyphonic. probable composers: notre dame school, leonin, perotin
first voice above the tenor in an organum
2nd voice above the tenor in an organum
vox principalis
voice originalis
cantus firmus
a preexistent melody used as the basis of a new polyphonic composition. used in the organum. sacred or secular. common in the middle ages and renaissance. melismatic, same text, modal, duplum/triplum (consonant intervals with the tenor)
(1135-1201) musician, canon, and poet. Wrote two voiced organum
composer who wrote 3 and 4 voice organum
Notre Dame (France)
mass and offices. responsorial, echo, top two voices imitate each other. 1 nume (hildegard) range is wider than the chant. talk about tenor first because it comes from chant
sacred and secular music of the medieval period. based on chant. polyphonic. each voice has its own text.Machaut
multiple languages
all voices are texted
motet in the 13th century . the 2nd voice to which words have been set. the first texted voice above the tenor in a motet
simultaneous use of two texts in a vocal work
Josquin des Prez
(1440-1521) composer, singer at Milan Cathedral from 1459-1472 to Duke Galeazzo Maria Sforza. Served various patrons following that. Possibly to king Rene of Anjou, Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, Louis XI and Louis XII. Singer at Papal Church in Rome from 1486-1494 (at least). Music circulated in the 16th century. Serving as models for parody. Composition and transcription. 20 masses, 110 motets, 75 secular works (french chanson)
Giovanni Gabrieli
(1553-1586) composer. nephew and pupil of Andrea Gabrieli, who edited many of his works. court musician in munich, organist at st. marks in venice. composed sacred vocal works.
a capella
choral music without instrumental accompaniment
familiar style
a style employing 4 part vocal, syllabic, homorhythmic texture
Music of the Renaissance
1430-1600. Imperfect consonances and more narrowly restricted use of dissonance. secular (formes fixes) and sacred (cantus firmus)
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
born in Palestrina (near Rome) between 1525 and 1526 died in 1594. Composer, choir boy at S. Maria Maggiore. 1544-50 organist and s. agapito cathedral in palestrina. 104 masses, many parody masses, 250 motets.
Guillaume duFay
(1400-1474) greatest composer of the age. choirboy at cambrai cathedral in 1409. sacred music treble dominated style hymns, antiphons, independent mass movements, and some motets (often isorhythmic and polytectual)
2nd item of the Mass ordinary
l’homme arme
15th c. melody widely used as a cantus firmus of polyphonic masses
poetic and musical form in the 14th century in italy and england. Renaissance period. last line of the text repeats. 4 or 5 voices. secular. played in italian courts or at home. weeping, dying, trembling, sighing. monteverdi is a probable composer
1567-1643. composer. pupil of marc’antonio ingegneri. served duke vincenzo I of mantua. probably the first composer to envision opera as a drama in music. composed operas. spiritual madrigals, masses, sacred vocal works, secular vocal works,
word painting
musical illustration of words
John Farmer
1570-1605. composer. associated with the christ church cathedral in dublin. best known works are english madrigals
Henry Purcell
1659-1695. Composer. Choir in the chapel royal: studied with cooke, humfrey and blow. at 8 he contributed a 3 part song to playford’s catch that catch can. composer-in-ordinary for violins. organist of westminster abbey and at the chapel royal. organ maker. composed operas and semi-operas and other secular music.
a drama that is sung
thoroughbass, figured bass
an independent bass line throughout a piece on the basis of which harmonies are extemporized. chords may be specified by figures written above, below, or beside the baseline.
a style of text setting that imitates and emphasizes the natural inflections, rhythms, and syntax of speech. avoids extremes of pitch, intensity, and repetition of words, allowing the music to be a vehicle for the words. most often in connection with dramatic music., opera, oratorio and cantata.
a self contained composition for solo voice usually with instrumental accompaniment and occuring in a larger form such an an opera, oratorio, or cantata
a short musical pattern that repeats.
ground, groundbass
pattern of notes, most often a single melodic phrase in the bass that is repeated over and over again
1600-1750. mostly homophonic music. consisted of opera, concerto, fugue, cantata, oratorio
George Frederich Handel
1685-1759. pupil of zachow. played violin, harpsichord in opera orchestra. wrote OPERAS, oratorios, secular cantatas, sacred dramas
Antonio Vivaldi
venice (1678-1741) composer. learned violin from his father, giovanni batista. ordained as a priest in 1708. Maestro di violino at the io aspedale della pieta orphanage in venice. wrote CONCERTOS nicknamed the Red Priest because he had red hair. 4 concerti
in the 16th-18th centuries. a diverse ensemble of voices, instruments, or both, or a composition for such. contrast each other in timbre and texture. VIVALDI wrote a lot of these.
ritornello form
the form of the first and often last movement of a late baroque concerto based on the alternation of tutti and solo sections.
program music
music that attempts to express or depict one or more nonmusical ideas, images, or events.
four seasons
the first four concertos of Vivaldi’s Il Cimento dell’armonia e dell’inventione op. 8, a set of 12 concertos for solo violin, strings, and continuo
dacappo form
ABA “returns”
“to fight” the most fully developed procedure of imitative counterpoint. the theme is stated successively in all voices. contrapuntal. polyphonic. 3 or 4 voices. exposition and episode.
fugue exposition
has full statements of the subject, ends when you don’t see the subject anymore. subject and answer (tonal real), stable tonality
fugue episode
no subject, new material, can have fragmented subject, modulate
sacred cantata
one or more solo vocalist with instruments. multiple movements: arias, choruses, recits, ariosos, duets. Bach wrote some.
handel wrote some. Baroque period. an extended musical drama with text based on religious subject matter. doesnt use scenery or costumes or acting.
Hildegard Von Bingen
Leonin, Perotin, Notre Dame
Medieval Motet
Secular Song
Machaut, Raimbout (troubadour)
Renaissance Motet
Josquin des Prez, Gabrieli
Guillame du fay, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
Monteverdi, John Farmer
Purcell, Handel
Sacred Cantata