classical era dates
classical era culture
Scientific spirit of inquiry and reason broadens to all areas of human existence
–Philosophy, religion, society structure, politics
Middle class enters mainstream
–Average person became the ideal person
–International mix
–Institution that does the greatest good for the greatest number of people, is good
d.Idealization of Greek and Roman culture
e. Age of Revolutions: Industrial, American, French
Scientific spirit of inquiry and reason broadens to all areas of human existence
1st Viennese school
Classical music associated with Vienna

-Vienna located between many musical nations
-Emperor Joseph II supports music
-Viennese middle class had money and time
-Adoptive home of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven

classical music style
i. Lyrical and flexible melody—“natural” like human voice
ii. Thematically linear rather than cyclical
iii. Expressively direct (no excessive ornamentation)
iv. Predominantly homophonic texture
v. Clear sections and cadences
vi. Is it simpler? A different aesthetic (what people think is beautiful)
absolute music
Music that has no literary, dramatic, or pictorial program
Invented by Cristofori (~1720)
i. Plectrums replaced by small hammers
ii. Escapement action
iii. Dynamic gradations now possible
multi-movement genre/form
Three movements:
1st: fast, sonata form
2nd: slow, sonata, theme and variations, other form
3rd: fast, rondo, sonata, other form

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Four movements:
1st: fast, sonata form
2nd: slow, sonata, theme and variations, other form
3rd: medium, minuet and trio, scherzo and trio, form
4th: fast, rondo, sonata, other form

sonata for orchestra
a work for one or more solo instruments and orchestra
double exposition
when a sonata is written out twice so that the soloist and the orchestra can both play it
section of music in a concerto that is improvised by a solo performer without orchestra accompaniment
opera buffa
Comic Opera
-Opera comique (France), Singspiel (Germany)
-Reaction to formulaic and predictable opera seria
-Audience can identify with the characters—middle class
opera seria
serious opera
Franz Joseph Haydn
“Papa Haydn”
major, prolific composer known for 104+ symphonies, string quarters, piano sonatas
“father of the symphony”
last of the great patronage composer
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
child prodigy-tours in Europe
600+ compositions in 23 years
best known for “The Marriage of Figaro”, concertos, chamber works, and “Requiem Mass”
Ludwig van Beethoven
musical innovator
Expanded Classical forms
Pervasive motivic development
Emotion, self-expression ? form
Ongoing pursuit of originality
Composer of the future
Ushers in Romanticism

rough life, becomes neurotic, deaf
9th symphony–Ode to Joy
Moonlight sonata
Fidelio opera

Romantic era dates
romantic culture
a. Reaction against the supremacy of reason
-Subjectivity rather than objectivity
-Fascination with extreme emotions
b. Fascination with nature and the fantastical
c. Desire for self-expression and uniqueness
d. Political unification and population growth
e. Larger middle class
romantic musical style
Intensification and extension of expressive elements of Classicism
[Classical: form shapes expression]
Romantic: emotion or imagery shapes form
-Melody—longer, irregular, wider range, more disjunction, more chromaticism
-Harmony—more chromaticism and unexpected modulation
-Form—modified Classical forms and new miniature forms
Belief that music has extra-musical origins
Program music
Bigger orchestra—Musical instruments are developed
Music conservatories flourish
Public concert halls—celebrity superstar musicians
any musical expression that is intended to emphasize the unique character and interests of a particular nation
nationalistic composers
Mikhail Glinka–Russia
The Mighty Five–Russia
Manuel de Falla–Spain
The Mighty Five
group of 5 Russian composers who shared the feeling that musical influences from the West should be completely abandoned
German opera
music drama
change in opera where the drama becomes more important than the music
–characteristic of Wagner
bel canto opera
“beautiful singing”
opera meant just to show off the voice, not about words or plot
verismo opera
Musical setting of the text closer to speech
Poor characters, extreme conditions, often violence on stage
music set to a poem for solo voice and piano
German word for song
designating a song in which all verses of the text are sung to the same music
modified strophic
some of the verses of the text are sung to the same melody while others are not
each section of the text has music different from the music preceding and following
song cycle
a series of art songs that tell a story or are otherwise related to one another
program music
music that is based on a poem, event, etc
-opposite of absolute music
program symphony
symphony based on a story, event, etc
–Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique
symphonic poem
single movement work for orchestra that is composed to tell a story or to go along with the events or moods in a particular poem
string quartet
chamber ensemble consisting of a 1st and 2nd violin, a viola, and a cello
–also, the form which is a sonata for these instruments
an instrumental work consisting of three or four contrasting movements
sonata form
musical form emcompassing one movement of a composition and consisting of three sections: exposition, development, and recapitulation–often followed by a coda
first section in sonata form containing the statement of the principal themes
second section of a movement in sonata form
-elaboration of themes
third section of sonata form which restates the themes from the exposition
themes and variations
a form based on a single theme and its subsequent repetition, with each new statement varied in some way from the original
minuet and trio
form employed in the third movement of many classical symphonies, cast in a stately triple meter and ternary form (ABA)
-Multiple departures and returns from themes
-ABACA (+coda)
-Often fast, forward momentum
concert overture
a one-movement self-contained orchestral concert piece, often in sonata form
Franz Schubert
Austrian composers
best known for his 600+ lieder (art songs) and 100+ choral works
Elrkonig (King of the Elves)
Robert and Clara Schumann
prominence as composer, also pianist
composed orchestral works, string quartets, and solo piano pieces
established first music journal

prominence as concert pianist, also composer
one of the first women to tour internationally
became an interpreter of Robert’s music

Franz Liszt
Hungarian composer and pianist
loved playing to large crowds
dramatized his playing–turned piano sideways so audience could see his hands
memorized his music
best known for solo piano music
developed the symphonic poem
Hector Berlioz
French composer
best known for program symphonies
-Symphonie Fantastique
used idee fixe in each movement-thematic transformation
used a bigger orchestra than usual to portray multiple images and emotions
Bedrich Smetana
Bohemian composer
best known for “The Moldau” which celebrates his country’s fine rivers
-one of six symphonic poems in Ma Vlast (My Country)
Johannes Brahms
Romantic composer best known for his choral and solo vocal works
-A German Requiem (Ein Deutsches Requiem)
-used German text instead of Latin in his religious pieces
Guiseppe Verdi
Italian opera composer
-Heart of operas are human beings
-De-emphasizes divisions of aria and recitative
-Orchestra is a character
-Libretti often based on genuine literature
famous for “Aida”
Giacomo Puccini
Late 19th century Italian opera composer
Chief composer of verismo opera
-Musical setting of the text closer to speech
-Poor characters, extreme conditions, often violence on stage
12 operas, many performed regularly
-Madame Butterfly, La Boheme
Richard Wagner
a. Wagner’s musical legacy
i. Groundbreaking use of chromaticism–constantly changing key
ii. Use of leitmotifs
1. Musical ideas that represent a character, object, or ideas
iii. Continuous music
1. Cadences are postponed
2. No arias or recitatives
iv. Role of the orchestra
v. Extensive staging
vi. Gigantic works
b. Wagner’s Artistic Theory
i. Operas should be universal artwork—elements from all arts
ii. Drama is most important; music supports drama
iii. Wagner’s operas were termed music dramas
iv. Earlier composers contended that music was the most important element

Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Nibelungs’ Ring)
-Brunnhilde and the Valkaries

early 20th century dates
end of 19th century to before WW2
early 20th century culture
a. Turn of the century—explosive technological change
b. Heavy experimentation and many movements in the arts
i. Expressionism, cubism, abstract art, modernism, primitivism, Dadaism, surrealism, neo-classicism
c.New awareness of Non-Western art and music
i. 1889—the World Exhibition in Paris
d. Age of World Wars and Communism
e. Tradition comes into question with new atheistic worldview
f. Composers reach for new levels of expression
i. Must go even further beyond traditional boundaries
Artistic movement in France
-Celebrated light, blended and nuanced color, blurred edges
-Idea of the image more important than the image itself
concentrated on the expression of inner feelings of conflict and unrest
-harsh colors and distorted images
-Van Gogh, Schoenberg
-artistic portrayal of underdeveloped people
-refers to flat shapes, lack of traditional sense of perspective, and color so vivid they aren’t realistic
works based on older forms while still using newer ideas
2nd Viennese school
Schoenberg and his followers
-total chromaticism
-12 tone system
musical organization without tonal center
serialism (12-tone system)
system of composition developed by Schoenberg that consists of arranging the 12 pitches of the chromatic scale in a particular order (known as a tone row, series, or set
-also called dodecaphony
-Blend of European and African-American pianist traditions
-Named for “ragged rhythms” (syncopation)
-Scott Joplin (1868-1917)-Maple Leaf Rag
-Arose from field hollers, work songs
-Improvisation based on a 12 to 16 measure harmonic progression
-“Blue” notes—3rd, 5th, and 7th of scale lowered a half-step
New Orleans jazz
Blend of ragtime and blues
Small ensemble (brass, saxophones, drums, keyboard, bass)
Relied heavily on solo improvisation
Louis Armstrong
-Invented new techniques, styles, etc
-Scat singing
-Coined the term “swing”
Swing era/ Big Band
1930s and 40s
Duke Ellington’s Big Band
-Larger ensemble
-Began practice of notating jazz music
-It Don’t Mean a Thing if it Ain’t Got That Swing
Post WW2 musical philosophy
New timbres
-Traditional instruments used in non-traditional ways: Ex. The Banshee and the prepared piano
-Noise: Ex. John Cage 4’33”
-Electronic sounds: Ex. Poeme Electronique Edgar Varese
-Musique concrete—any sound recorded and manipulated into a composition
New forms
-Aleatoric (chance) music
-Music with no form
aleatoric music
music in which some aspect is decided by performers or someone else other than the composer, guaranteeing that every performance of the work will be different
-chance/indeterminacy music
musique concrete
“concrete music”
musical style originating in France about 1948
consists of recording natural or “concrete” sounds, altering the sounds by various electronic means, and then combining them into organized pieces
electronic music
music produced by such means as magnetic tapes, synthesizer, or computer
late 20th century movement that seeks to return music to its simplest, most basic elements

characterized by a very steady beat and gradually changing repeating figures

Claude Debussy
French composer
first to break from Western tradition
leader of impressionism in music

Use of non-Western scales
Use of traditional in a non-traditional way -dominant chords that don’t resolve
Long sustained bass notes instead of dominant-tonic progression
Translated French language into music—no harsh edges
Made timbre equal to rhythm, pitch, and harmony

Igor Stravinsky
Master Russian composer of the 20th century
neoclassical work
famous for “The Rite of Spring”
Arnold Schoenberg
leading proponent of atonal music
leader of 2nd Viennese school
serialism (12-tone)
famous for Pierrot Lunaire
Alban Berg
Adopted most of Schoenberg’s 12-note system of composition
Combined 12-tone techniques with forms from earlier musical eras
Anton Webern
-Works represent radical departure from established compositional procedures and concepts
-Mature works epitomize serialist approach to composition inherent in 12-tone system
-Wrote little music; works tended to be short
-Complete output totals less than five hours of music
-Music became increasingly influential after WWII
Aaron Copland
popular American composer
drew on themes from regional America
“Fanfare for the Common Man”
Scott Joplin
early 20th century ragtime pianist
famous for “Maple Leaf Rag”
Duke Ellington
leader of Big Band music during the Swing Era
larger ensemble
began practice of notating jazz music
“It Don’t Mean a Thing if it Aint Got that Swing”
George Gershwin
blended jazz and classical sounds
famous for “Rhapsody in Blue”
composed popular songs with his brother Ira
Henry Cowell
Californian composer
known for using tradition instruments in non-traditional ways
“The Banshee”
aleatory/chance music
tone clusters
influenced by non-Western music
John Cage
one of Cowell’s students
used prepared piano–placing screws, bolts, bamboo on the piano strings to make percussion sounds
famous for “Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared Piano”, 4’33”
Edgar Varese
challenged traditional music traditions by defining music as “organized sound”
combined concrete music (natural sounds) with electronic music (man-made sounds)
famous for “Poeme Electronique”
John Adams
American composer
music rooted in minimalism with its constant, repeated motives but varies in textures and instrumentation
“Short Ride in a Fast Machine”
operas: Nixon in China, The Death of Klinghoffer