Early Classical Period vs. Late

Mozart’s Symphony No. 40 (1788) – Early

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Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5 (1808) – Late

Mozart

 

Early Classical Period

"rules"

Absolute music

Started to break the rules in a minor way

Beethoven

 

Late Classical Period

Early on roots with classical form

Added his own twist on things

Sense of excitement & urgency; dif. mood

Expanded the range of the music

Concerto
a soloist or small group of solo players are accompanied by the orchestra.

Solo Concerto

one soloist

Concerto Grosso

small group of soloists

 

expand the contrast between orchestra & soloist

Movements of Baroque Concerto

3 movements

 

1st-fast

2nd-slow

3rd-very fast

Ritornello Form

focuses on contrast b/t two musical ideas; one dealing with soloist and one with orchestra

 

this form refers to the orchestra msic portion of the ping-pong section of the music.

Cadenza

an improvised (or made up) solo passage that takes place within a larger piece.

 

popular with concertos

 

usually found at the end of the first movement

Classical Period Solo Concerto

expanded instrument list vs. Baroque

 

maintains 3 movements

 

expansion of sonata form: double expo

The Sonata Genre

sonata not desinged for concerts, but private performances.

 

Classical Period Sonata

limited to one or two instruments

 

three movements

 

I-fast sonata form

II-slow

III-fast

Chamber Music

music written for small groups of musicians in "intimate" circumstances

 

no conductor used

string quartet

4 musicians

 

 

2 violins, 1 viola, 1 cello

 

4 movements based on symphony

Baroque Opera

focal point in Venice, Italy.

 

most characteristic art form of the time.

combined music, drama, poetry & dance.

two major song styles: recitative vs. aria.

 opera seria.

 

 

Recitative

Italian meaning "recitation".

 

singing words in a free rhythm style to communicate action in a clear simple manner.

Aria

an extended solo song with musical elaborations.

 

calls for strong vocal talent.

Opera Seria

serious opera.

 

plots from ancient history designed to stir up emotions.

Classical Opera

expands art form.

Opera Buffa.

Ensembles.

Opera Buffa

"comic opera"

 

The flexibility of the classical style helped expand this form.

 

Haydn & Mozart wrote several during their time in Vienna.

Ensembles

an addition to the aria.

 

a large musical number in which several characters sing at the same time.

 

each characer brings across his own emotion/mood.

Romantic Period Opera

"program music" moves into opera form.

Expanded storyline & plot.

Huge visual/audio connections.

 

Giusseppe Verd-24 operas(Aida)

Richard Wagner

one of the main composers of the romantic period.

 

music drama.

 

coined gesamtkunstwerk "total work of art"

 

4 operas-took him 30 yrs to write.

music drama
combining several art forms into one package
Romanticism

Romantic period connected with the art history of the time.

 

"expressing" one’s self; ;bohemians;

industrial revolution took place.

music was combined with the ;other arts;

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Hector Berlioz
french composer famous for the development of the ;program symphony;
program symphony
storyline described in a ;program that helped to connect the movements.
Romantic Symphony

larger orchestra.

more movements.

;program music; connection

Fantastic Symphony

;Symphony Fantastique;

5 movements.

unique that is uses same theme in all movements.

;

4th mvmt-Marth of the Scaffold

5th mvmt-Dream of a Witches Sabbath

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Famous use of old Gregorian Chant

Symphony No. 5 in C Minor

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Movement I

Beethoven;

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Classical Period

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Sonata-Allegro Form

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Symphony No. 5 in C Minor

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Movement II

Beethoven

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Classical Period

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Theme ; Variations Form

Symphony No. 5 in C Minor

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Movement III

Beethoven

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Classical Period

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Ternary Form

Symphony No. 5 in C Minor

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Movement IV

Beethoven

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Classical Period

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Sonata-Allegro Form

Symphony No. 95 in C minor

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Movement I

Haydn

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Classical Period

;

Sonata-Allegro Form

Symphony No. 95 in C Minor

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Movement II

Haydn

;

Classical Period

;

Theme;; Variations

Symphony No. 95 in C Minor

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Movement III

;

Haydn

;

Classical Period

;

Ternary Form

Symphony No. 95 in C Minor

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Movement IV

Haydn

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Classical Period

;

Rondo Form

Violin Concerto in G

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Movement I

Antonio Vivaldi

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Baroque Period

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Ritornello Form

Violin Concerto in G

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Movement II

Antonio Vivaldi

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Baroque Period

Violin Concerto in G

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Movement III

Antonio Vivaldi

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Baroque Period

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Ritornello Form

Brandenburg Concerto No. 5

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Movement I

Bach

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Baroque Concerto Grosso

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Ritornello Form

Brandenburg Concertos

group of 6 pieces composed by Bach

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all 6 use dif. instrument combination for the soloist group.

;

;

No. 5 featured flute, violin, ; harpsichord.

Piano Sonata in B-Flat

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Movement III

Mozart

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Classical Period

;

Quasi-Rondo Form

Piano Concerto;in A

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Movement I

Mozart

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Classical Period

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Sonata-Allegro Form

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(wrote 17 piano concertos in Vienna)

Symphonie Fantastique

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Movement IV

March of the Scaffold

Hector Berlioz

;

Romantic Period

;

Program Symphony

Symphony Fantastique

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Movement V

Dream of a Witch’s Sabbath

Hector Berlioz

 

Romantic Period

 

Program Symphony