Claude Debussy’s year of birth and death
Claude Debussy’s country of origin
Major difference between Modern music vs all previous versions
Changed away from functional harmonies
Debussy studied in…
Debussy won which contest in 1884?
The Prix de Rome
Debussy’s instrument
Original work adapted for orchestral instruments
An original piece of music edited for a different “flavor”.
Debussey’s cause of death and location of death
Died from rectal cancer in Paris during a World War I bombing.
Debussey’s love life
Had many scandalous affairs, including one jilted lover who attempted suicide in a public square.
Prelude a l’apres-midi d’un faune
Tone poem based on a French symbolist poem. Later used as a ballet.
A movement in the later 19th century arts. Symbolists believed that art should aim to capture more absolute truths which could only be accessed by indirect methods.
A term usually given to describe the music of Debussey and others (Ravel). The harmonies, melodies, and rhythms of the music are clouded, shifting, and obscure. (similar to Impressionism in visual art).
Short, rhythmic, melodic phrase repeated over and over again
Igor Stravinsky
The Firebird
1910 Opera by Stravinsky based on Russian folklore
1911 opera by Stravinsky
The Rite of Spring
1913 opera by Stravinsky
Atonal Music
No key, very discordant
Arnold Schoenberg
Pioneer of wholly non-functional, atonal music
Polytonal Music
Music using two (or more) keys at the same time. Music with more than one tonal center.
Speech singing; a style of singing where the vocalist half-sings and half-says the words, never staying very long on the pitch of written notes.
The Emancipation of Dissonance
A phrase by Schoenberg indicating that dissonant sounds no longer need to be resolved.
The 2nd Viennese School
Schoenberg and his pupils Berg and Webern
Tone color melody; a melody made up of tone colors instead of individual notes.
Modern Melody
No longer based on major/minor scales, nor any type of scale. Irregular phrases. Could use angular and chromatic leaps. There could be little or no melody at all.
Modern Harmony
New types of chords – all and any type. Tone Clusters. Non-functional harmony
Modern Rhythm
Poly-rhythms. Odd meters – 7/4, 5/4, 13/8. Changing meters in one piece. Multiple time signatures. Ostinatos
Modern Texture
Tone colors become more important, extended techniques, use of odd combinations of instruments/voices, no set texture – could be monophonic homophonic or polyphonic
Aaron Copland
William Grant Still
“Dean of African-American Composers”
Went to college for medicine, but switched to music. After his death, his archive “papers” were donated to the University of Arkansas. People from all over the world come to the UofA library to research his life. First African-American to have a piece performed by a major orchestra. First African-American to have an opera performed. First to conduct a major symphony orchestra.
“Harlem Renaissance” or “New Negro Movement”
Started in the 1910s and continued to the 1930s. An explosion of African-American arts.
Gustav Holst
Best known for his orchestral suite composed during the years 1914-1916, entitled The Planets.
Holst influences
Ideas borrowed from Schoenberg, Stravinsky, and Debussy
Holst never wrote another piece like The Planets again. He hated its popularity.
How ironic that the piece that made his name famous throughout the world brought him the least joy in the end.
Why electronic music?
1. The composer has full control
2. New sounds/rhythms
3. Impossible made possible
Isao Tomita
Born in Tokyo
Had a full time career as a composer for film, television and theatre.
Tomita head Wendy Carlos’ seminal ‘Switched-On Bach’, the record which brought the awareness of the public to the synthesizer in 1968.
Charlie Parker
Kansas City, MO
Died young due to an heroine addiction.