The common responsibilities of a concert promoter:
1. Orchestrating Ticket Sales
2. Organizing sale of artist merchandise
3. Assisting in securing sponsorship deals to support the
4. Arranging stage setup
5. Providing some of the event staff
6. Financial Accounting
7. Complying with live event safety regulations
The four (4) common talent fee structures utilized by concert promoters:
Flat Guarantee- pays a flat rate, usually 50% in advance, 50% after performance. Used in festivals
Advantage: You get paid no matter how many tickets are sold
Straight Percentage- Net revenue= less customary expenses (venue rental, box office fees, marketing/promotion). 85% (Artist) 15% (Promoter). Promoter covers all his expenses, what is left over is split
Disadvantage: at the mercy of ticket sales
Advantage- aligns promoter and artist interests
Versus Deal- a guarantee vs. a % (whichever is larger)
Disadvantage- used as a way to low ball artist
Plus Deal- Guarantee plus a %. Used in larger tours. How the promoter’s profit is calculated is what is different. Promoter’s profit at 15% is calculated as an expense. Est expenses, multiply by 15%, and then add that back into total expenses. Promoter is guaranteed to cover his expenses. Artist is offered a guara
The four (4) common types of performance agreement riders
Technical rider- shows various requirements of artist stage production
Rig points
Stage plot
Lighting plots
Crew parking
Power requirements
Sound inputs
Security Rider- lets promoter know what security concerns of the artist are. Warranty that promoter and venue will engage adequate security to reasonably protect artist and crew
Security meetings
Backstage security
Stage barrier description
Merchandising Rider- defines terms and conditions that venue must follow in exchange for a % of sales. Use venue staff to sale merchandise.
In exchange for providing staff and resources, venue takes a cut
Artist has exclusive right to sell all non-food/beverage items- venue has the right to sell the food/beverage
Hospitality Rider- request for food/beverages/accommodations of artist
Food, drinks, catering
Hotel accommodations
The three (3) most common sources of tour revenue for performing artists
Ticket Sales
5) Licenses or permits a concert promoter may have to secure for the production of an outdoor music festival
Force Majeure
Performance licensing
The problems that could crop up in managing sponsorships for concerts
Act and venue are sponsored by competing products (Pepsi vs. Coke)
Artist may reject sponsor, or limit exposure of sponsors image (Page 284)
Artist may also ask for additional fees in exchange for letting a sponsor display brand (Page 284)
The factors in setting the price for a venue rental?
What season it is (summer vs. Winter)
Day of the week
The areas geographic exclusivity for star acts
What performance mediums make up the arts industry?
Choral groups
Church groups
Sacred Music
Classical music
Sources of philanthropic and market funding for nonprofit arts organizations
Earned income-tickets sales, music downloads receipts, and other direct payments for what they do
Contributed- includes donations and grants
The duties of an Executive Director/General Manager of a nonprofit performing arts organization
Supervise the work of the staff. Hire and fire
Organize and supervise volunteers
Direct long range planning
Raise Money
Prepare Budgets
Work with artistic director in the conception and implementation of programs
Negotiate contracts for professional services
Supervise technical matters relative to live performances
Handle press relations and public relations
Product sales leaders in the music products industry
Fretted instruments
Sound Reinforcement products
Printed Music
Wind Instruments
Retail sales leaders in the music products industry
Full Line retailer (Guitar Center)
Combo Stores (Guitars, bass, drums, P.A.’s-don’t offer everything)
Specialty Shops (High end, occupy niche market)
The current challenges facing the music products industry today
Outsourcing of production overseas for cheaper labor
Cuts in arts education- budgetary cuts
Big box retailers are entering the market- cheap instruments
Technology- rise in technology leads to more music being created from synths
Digital distribution- lowers demand for offset printing
Piracy and counterfeiting of print music
Poor economic conditions
The advantages and disadvantages to both artists and fans of consolidation in the concert promotion and ticketing industries:
Can buy ticket from comfort of home-don’t have to go/wait in lines at the box office
Gives artist a better idea of how well tickets are selling
Can get more in depth knowledge of fan base/get their email etc.…
Allows for more direct and specific promotion of the shows to people who will actually be interested in the artist.
The relative importance of the Live Music sector to the overall music industry, how this importance changed over time, and why the concert promotion business experience so much consolidation in recent years:
Extremely important due to the fact that this is where the artist makes majority of their money, boosts record sales, merchandise sales, expand fan base.
Changed from when live shows were used as promotion to boost record sales, back when record sales where primary moneymaker- ticket prices increased 2% from 1975-1996
Ticketmaster and Livenation merged. Prior promoter and ticketing agents were separate. Ticketmaster standardized industry. Primary customer is the venue for ticketmaster. Made ticketing a profit center. Convenience factor, cause ticketmaster had all info- became one stop shop for all tours
Ticketmaster makes money off service charges
Per capita expectations for licensed merchandise are for an artist playing a stadium versus an intimate setting with small seating, and the reasons why expected sales per ticket holder is vastly different:
Per capita- Average dollar amount that artist will sale in merch per ticket/person
Generally speaking, the smaller the seating capacity, the higher the expectations are for sales per head- the thinking is that majority of the people at small shows are big fans and more likely to purchase merchandise
Large stadiums share a converse relationship to the small venue idea because it is a mix of light and die-hard fans
The historical development of patronage in the arts. Why is it still needed today?
Patronage has been a huge part of art music throughout history- first acts of patronage were done by the Church and nobility
Concert halls and public theatres increased in numbers and ticket sales supported musicians as did people with wealth
In modern times, art societies were developed to organized financial backing for orchestras and operas
It is still needed because this is the case since the beginning of the arts and it simply is impossible to survive off simply ticket sales.
The factors typically considered by a business on whether or not to give a financial grant/donation to a nonprofit performing arts organization:
Proper solicitation- many big companies haven’t given because they haven’t been asked- someone needs to show them why they should give the money
Companies want to know about audience demographics- if the people seeing the show are their clients
How and why the market for music instruments and equipment is changing:
Outsourcing of production overseas for cheaper labor
Cuts in arts education- budgetary cuts
Big box retailers are entering the market- cheap instruments
Technology- rise in technology leads to more music being created from synths
Digital distribution- lowers demand for offset printing
Piracy and counterfeiting of print music
Poor economic conditions