originated in Florence, Italy. Musical priod between 1600 to about 1750. The term borrowed from art meaning: overly ornamented, distorted, bizarre, eccentric, or grotesque.
the seventeenth-century view of human experience including passions, and humor. There are six basic passions: love, hate, joy, sorrow, wonder, and desire.
Rationalist Descartes’ theory was that it was a bodily fluid, which controlled one’s state of mind.
Doctrine of Affections
There are six basic ones: love, hate, joy, sorrow, wonder, and desire.
Florentine Camerata
a group of intellectuals, including some musicians, who met in the home of Count Giovanni de Bardi to discuss the art and philosophy of the ancients and their applications to contemporary culture. The main men were: Bardi, Strozzi, Mei, Rinuccini, Galilei, Caccini, and Reri.
in the view of Rationalists emphasis on it was the model for expression. Act of speech. Repetition of word/phrases
Baroque specific texture consisting of solo voice w/instrumental accompaniment to better imitate in music the patterns of speech [oratory or rhetoric] rather than imitating poetic images[ie:eord painting]. Also known as Homophonic.
the idea that reason supersedes authority of all types. A rationalist is Renee Descartes.
“New Music”
Sprezzatura di Canto
(nonchalance in singing). rhythmic freedom to approximate speech.
basso continuo or thoroughbass
musical style of the baroque. It was placed under the staff. It is now called figured bass. Two people are needed to play for this. It is short hand.
prima prattica or stile antico
(first practice or old style). Dissonance forbidden by it are justified in the new music by the affections suggested by the words.
seconda prattica or stile moderno
New harmonic style which operates on the fundamental premise that the text or the expressive intention controls the details of the music.
Claudio Monteverdi
connected to prima pratica and seconda pratica
solo madrigals
The top line is most important. (no vibrato at all during this time)
strophic canzonetta
(aria). translates to “simple little song”
strophic variations
ie: torna, deh torna pargoletta mio
round bass patterns
typical romanesque harmonies, normal romanesque bass, caccin’s bass.
The Passions of the Soul
Where Descartes explored the affections;/ passions in his 1649 treatise.
Le nuove musique
-Songs of it are of two sorts. There are several strophic arias, continuing the tradition of the sixteenth-century genre. There are also madrigals in monodic style. Made by Caccini.
Types of solo song in Le nuove musiche
Solo Madrigal, strophic canzonetta, and strophic variations.
Composite vocal genre of the Baroque, consisting of a succession of recitatives, arias, and set pieces(ie: arias, duets, choruses). The text may be either sacred or secular. The range from intimite, small-scale works for solo singer or singers and restricted accompaniment forces to large ones w/ chorus and orchestral accompaniment.
Stylus ecclesiasticus
church style. Sacred vocal traditions. Polyphonic motet and mass – stylus gravis(serious style). Polyphonic scoring associated w/ the venetian school. Polychoral style along w/ concertato instruments.
stylus cubicularis
chamber style. three types; sixteenth-century madrigal(4-6 parts, acapella). Solo or ensemble works w/ continuo(including aria ; solo madrigals). Concerted vocal works w/ additional instrumental parts.
stylus theatrilas
theatrical style. Like an Opera which is a drama that is sung.
stile rappresentivo or recititive
One of the components of early opera. There are two types of it as well; secco=only basso continue accompaniment, and accompagnato=accompanied by the orchestra.
Bel Canto
A type of aria. It is syllabic settings and slow motion to let the voice resonate
another type of aria. It is rapid, florid style to show off the vocal agility of the performer.
it is the ideal sound of the baroque era, which favored contrasting timbres. It began as a way of indicating that a vocal piece was doubled in performance by instruments. First appeared from one of Giovanni’s Gabrielli’s pieces.
a strophic variation of round bass pattern. When a bass line lasted for an entire strophe. usually whole notes.
a strophic variation of round bass. usually a pattern of two notes.(quarter and dotted half note)
chaconne and passacaglia
when a bass line might be shorter, lasting only a few measures. A common one is a descending minor tetrachord disguised by chromatic passing motion. The outcome is an affect of sadness which is sometimes called the lamento bass.
strophic variation
the two popular bass formulas; romanesca;and ruggiero.;Vocal music, an aria or song whose bass line remains the same for every stanza of text, while different melodies are set to it at each repetition; also called strophic bass.
testo(text) or historicus
the narrator in an opera. It became a crucial distinction between opera and oratorio.
Alessandro Striggio
Monteverdi’s librettist. Looked at ancient greece with him.
Heinrich Schutz
His last name literally means to shoot or protector. He spent time in venice to work with Gabrielis. Composed a Sacred Concerto.
Giacomo Carissimi
One of the composers, most responsible, for Oratorio, who worked in Rome. His works were mostly made for the brotherhood of Sanctissimo Crocifisso at the elite, upper-class Church of San Marcello.
men who perform women characters in operas. They have been operated.
sacred concerto
Large scale sacred work for one or more solo vocalists, multiple choruses and instrumental accompaniment.
Baroque sound ideal which favored contrasting timbres.
Terraced Dynamics
when they use dynamic symbols to change the volume like (f, p, pp) not (< >). It was part of the time period.

-large scale vocal work using biblical texts in dialogue performed by solo voices, chorus, and orchestra.

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– no staging, scencery, or costumes

-use of a narrator(testo/historicus)

-uses a series of recitatives, aria, ensemble

-#’s (duets, trios, etc.) choruses and instrumental

-#’s (overture, sinfonias, etc.)

The Restoration
When charles II, king of England, came to be king, and returned music back into its normal state. It brought music back into court and church.
to integrate the cantus firmus w/ the rest of the texture by setting the main melody in relative long notes in one line(commonly soprano or tenor)and introducing each of its phrases by motives from the chorale presented in imitative texture in the other parts.
embellishments that the french aplied to the notes of the music. They indicated them by a variety of signs written above, below, or adjacent to the notes of their otherwise generally simple-looking melodic lines.
(full). A small solo group, which plays throughout, is called concertino. Full ensemble, which reinforces certain passages, is called tutti or concerto grosso. Other composers identify the complete group as (full).
A small solo group, which plays throughout.
Girolamo Frescobaldi
Wrote a ricercare which has a subject and rebutic subject.
Renee Descartes
A rationalist. Thought of humor as a bodily fluids. And came up with “the doctrine of affections”
Giulio Caccini
He brought the “new music” (le nueve 
Giovanni Maria Artusi
theorist who used many of Monteverdi’s works to criticize.
Marco Scacchi
Italian musical scholar who merged all the different vocal music into three general headings: stylus ecclesiasticus, stylus cubicularis, and stylus theatralis.
Jean Baptiste Lully
Was Italian and hired by Louis XIV and worked with Phillipe Qnault, his librettist. The most succesful schemer and manipulator among all the major composers in the history of music. His works were called tragedies lyriques.
Alessandro Scarlatti
The leading Neapolitan opera composer who came from Naples, Rome.
Apostolo Zeno
Scarlattis’s librettist. And as they worked together they came out with the opera seria.
Henry Purcell
The leading english composer who did “Dido and Aeneas.” Worked for three different kings: Charles II, James II, and William III. And did a lot of the repeating ground bass.
Dietrich Buxtehude
leading composer of when the sacred concerto developed into multi-movement constructions. He also served as an organist in Lubeck, Germany and influenced by Italian styles.
Francois Couperin
Master of the suite. Served both the church and the royal court of france. The author of L’Art de toucher le clavecin (the art of playing the harpsichord), which brought forward the agrements (embellishments).
Arcangelo Corelli
Outstanding composer in the genre of the sonata who was trained in Bologna.
Giuseppe Torelli
Took advantage of the concertato alternation of soloistic and full sound to create a logically organized musical form. He made his compositions with three movements with tempos fast-slow-fast.
Antonio Vivaldi
Master of the Italian concerto. He had red hair. Became a priest but was kicked out and he became a teacher instead in an orphanage in Venice, Italy. And he made the violin concertos.
Johann Sebastian Bach
The composer whose work in the art and music of rationalism attained its finalization. Because of how much he composed, he became blind in the end. Born in Eisenach in a poor family.
George Frideric Handel
was not particularly from a musical family. He wrote operas. Met Corelli and soaked up scarlatti’s influence.