1A. The Renaissance philosophy of Humanism
Importance of words
1B-1. Ways in which Renaissance man’s knowledge of ancient Greek music affected the writing of music in the Renaissance

1a) Nicola Vincentino’s artiorgano (organ) and arcicembalo (harpsichord) (33 divisions of the octave) (1550s) — Greek genera


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1b) Nicola Vicentino’s L’antica musica ridotta alla moderna prattica (1555)


2) Florentine Camerata and Opera — Greek theater

1B-2. Ways in which the Humanists affected the writing of music in the Renaissance
2A. Changes composers in the third generation of the Renaissance (1450-1480), such as Jean de Ockeghem, brought to the writing of masses. (NAWM 39)

1. Lower Bass- as low as low C (Result: Fuller, Darker sound)

2. Non-Cadential (Deceptive Cadence or some voices keep moving) + Long Phrases

3. Non-Imitative but Equal Voices (Not Ockeghem’s Missa prolationum)

4. Modal- Root movements by 2nds and 4ths not so much 5th and 6ths.

2B. The relationship between the soprano + alto and the tenor + bass in Ockeghem’s Missa prolationum? (NAWM 39)

Ockeghem’s Missa prolationum (Mass of Prolations): Kyrie (NAWM 39) = Double mensuration canons

1. Kyrie 1 : Canons at the unison between Soprano and Alto + Tenor and Bass proceeding at different speeds.

2. Christe: duets (alto+bass starts at m. 1; soprano+tenor starts at m.8; also+bass starts at m. 15) move up by a second

3. Kyrie II: Canons at the third between Soprano and Alto + Tenor and Bass proceeding at different speeds.

3A. How a motet is constructed if it is structured according to the principle of “pervading imitation”? (You might make a diagram here to aid your explanation.) (NAWM 41)
-Each Line of text is given a musical phrase that is taken up in imitation among the voices.
3B. How composers obtained variety (or maintained interest) in compositions structured according to the principle of “pervading imitation” (NAWM 41)
Variety by Varying Texture (order of entries, distance between entries, paired voices, and homophonic relief)
4. Josquin’s care with which he set words to music (Be prepared to cite examples in the compositions of Josquin that we have studied.) (NAWM 41 + others)

1. Alegnment of Words’ Accents and Music’s Accents

2. Projecting the Emotion of the Text in the Music

3. Illustrating Images of the Text through gestures in the music (Angel Gabriel’s descent and “full of solemn jubilation”

4.Plus Frequent Cadences (including pillar C cadences at ends of major divisions of the text)

5.Thin Textures

6.Often Syllabic Setting of Text

5. How one creates a soggetto cavato
“Subject Carved out” of a word, name, or phrase by letting each vowel indicate a syllable of the hexachord.
6. The biography of Josquin des Prez

–Josquin des Prez (c. 1450-1521) = Greatest Composer of the High Renaissance/Fourth Generation (1470-1520)

1. Born probably in or near St. Quentin, halfway between Paris and Brussls Choirboy as the collegiate church at St. Quentin.

2. 1484-1489 = singer/composer for Sforza family of Milan

3. 1489 to 1495 or later = singer/composer in Papal (Pope’s) Chapel in Rome

4. 1501-1503 = may have been at French Court of Louis XII

5. 1503-1504 = Chapel master at Court of Ferrara for Ercole (Hercules) I d’Este

6. 1504-1521 = Provost at Notre-Dame at Conde-sur-Escaut

7. Composed 18 masses, over 50 motets, and 65 chansons (about 10 for instruments)

7A. On what material is a Paraphrase Mass based (NAWM 42)
melody is source of motives for points of imitation
7B. What is done with this material (NAWM 42)
[ Variety of textures, four voices, cadential style, attention to text, and sensuous surface] [Drive to Cadence]
8. The contents and the significance of Ottaviano dei Petrucci’s Harmonice Musices Odhecaton A

*First substantial collection of printed polyphony

1. Anthology of 96 French chanson and instrumental pieces by composers of both the Josquin and the Busnoys- Ockeghem generations.

2. Sequels = Canti B (1502) and Canti C (1504)

3. Triple Impression (notes, staves, and text) Printing makes for beautiful prints

***Music printing meant wider audiences and cheaper music! (Middle Class)

*** Music printing often meant more accurate copies.

9. The historical context of the frottola and the features of its music (NAWM 51)

-Frottola= stophic song with Italian text written between 1470-1520

-Courtly/art — Melanchonly Love or witty

-Cultivated at the northern Italian courts of Mantua, Ferrara, and Urbino.

10. Three differences between the frottola and the first-stage Italian madrigal (1520-1550) (Jacques Arcadelt’s Il bianco e dolce cigno, for instance). (These may concern text and/or music.) (NAWM 51 versus NAWM 52)

1. No longer strophic text, but poem of about 8-15 lines
2. A little imitation or interest drawn to voice other then the soprano
3. A little attention to the text through word-painting (“piangendo” and “mille morte”)– music illustrates the word.

11. Four changes Cipriano de Rore brought to the Italian madrigal (1550-1570). (Think in terms of Rore’s Da le belle contrade d’oriente, for instance.) (NAWM 53)

·         Poetry = higher literary quality and more dramatic (Petrarch)
·         5 voices
·         A lot of imitation
·         Music depends on the expressive needs of the poetry

12. The style of the music in Luca Marenzio’s madrigals (NAWM 54)

hight of word painting (madrigalisms)

New images + wit!

13. The style of the music in Carlo Gesualdo’s madrigals (NAWM 55)

1. Poem=antithesis

2. music

        a. highly Chromatic (7 #s and 6 bs)

        b. slow-chromatic-homophonic vs. fast-diatonic-imitative


14. Circumstances in which Italian madrigals were performed (1520—1600)

15. The historical context of the Parisian chanson and the features of its music (NAWM 56)


1.       Short

2.       Homophonic

3.       Tuneful Melody in Soprano

4.       Four Voices

5.       Syllabic

6.       Simple Sectional Schemes (aabc, abca, aab)

7.       Strophic

8.       Begins with half-quarter-quarter rhythm-trademark…if it has this rhythm then it is a French Chanson

9.       Many repeated notes in superius for textual clarity

10.   Overall effect= Clarity, grace, and simplicity +lyrical

16A. How musique mesurée came to be written (originated)

1.       The Pleiade ( group of 7 poets; Pierre de Ronsard = greatest in the group) ancient poetry was sung, and there was a tight union between poerty and music

2.       Academie de Poesie et de Musique met at the home of Jean-Antoine de Baif: poets, composters, singers, instrumentalists, and listeners

16B. The features of a chanson written in the style of musique mesurée (NAWM 58)

1.       Misique mesuree = vers mesures set to music  (length of the syllable determined by phonetic quality + position in the verse)

1.       Long Syllable = half note; short syllable = quarter notes. Result = no regularly recurring accent.

2.       Homophonic

3.       Chant (verse) and Rechant (refrain)

4.       Sometimes varies number of voices

5.       Pastoral Text often

6.       Melismas now and then enliven the texture

17. The historical context of the villancico and the features of its music (NAWM 50)

Patronage began with Ferdinand of Aragon + Isabella of Castile (1469 – 1516) to help unify Spain

Texts usually on rustic subjects (“Villano” = peasant)

1. Homophonic with Melody in Top Voice
2. Refrain + Verse
3. Syllabic
4. Strophic
5. Dance-like Rhythms + Hemiola = 6/8 and ¾

18A. Martin Luther’s positions on music

-Luther appreciated music for its sheer beauty and for its power to move the listener spiritually. *Also for its ethical and educational powers.

-Luther admired the masses and motets written for the Catholic church, especially those of Josquin.

18B. The types of music written for the Lutheran Church in the sixteenth century as a result of these positions (NAWM 44c + d and Supplemental CD 1, Track 9)

*1. Chorale = monophonic tune + Lutheran text sung by the congregation. Sung after the Gradual, Sanctus, and Agnus dei.

19. Four sources of chorale tunes during the time of Martin Luther

-Chorale melodies were taken from popular secular melodies, Gregorian chants, and Leisen (german religious songs). Many melodies were also newly composed

 -Chorales created through the process of contrafactum (keep music and substitute a new text)

20A. Jean Calvin’s positions on music

thought music could distract from the text + Text should come from God = The Psalms of David.

20B. The types of music written for Calvin’s Reformed Church in the sixteenth century as a result of these positions (NAWM 45a and Supplemental CD 1, Track 10)

Psalms sung monophonically by the congregation in French translations — rhymed, metrical, and in stanzas

-Geneva Psalter of 1562 = Text by Clement Marot and Theodore de Beze
Music by Loys Bourgeoise (composer/arranger)
-Polyohonic Settings of Psalm Tunes
 -Claude Goudimel (ca. 1520-1572) = two books for Use at home only — not in the church