Council of Trent
Music was a subject for debate, especially the use of secular song in the composition of masses. The final statement was vague, leaving it to bishops to regulate music.
Ideas and contributions of Martin Luther
Did not like the frivolous practices of the church. Brought the mass into the vernacular. More polyphonic singing.
Metric, rhymed, strophic poetry for unison, unaccompanied performance by the congregation
Secular songs given new words
cantional style
Homophony -Popular in the last third of the century Tune in the highest voice Accompaniment in block chords After ca. 1600 the accompaniment was usually played on organ, with the choir singing the melody in unison.
Chorale motets
Franco-Flemish motet style, Chorale appears as a cantus firmus in long notes in some motets. Some chorale motets use the source chorale imitatively in all voices
Anglican Church
Was created because the king wanted a divorce.
English equivalent of motet
Sung by the choir
Texts come from the Bible or the Book of Common Prayer
Full anthem: unaccompanied, contrapuntal
Verse anthem: for solo voice(s) with organ or viol accompaniment, alternating with passages for full choir doubled by instruments
Thomas Tallis (ca. 1505-1585)
Leading composer of the generation following Taverner
Composed Latin masses and hymns
Also composed English service music
His style weds the melody to the natural inflection of speech.
William Byrd (ca. 1540-1623)
The most important English composer of the Renaissance
Probably studied with Thomas Tallis
Catholic, yet served the Church of England as organist and choirmaster
Worked in the royal chapel from 1572 to 1623
Composed both Anglican service music and Latin music
Also composed secular music (see HWM Chapters 11 and 12)
His style shows the influence of continental imitative techniques.
Jean Calvin (1509-1564)
Led the largest Protestant movement outside of Germany and Scandinavi
Calvin stripped churches and services of possible distractions from worship, including decorations (see HWM Figure 10.3), ceremony, and polyphony.
He believed congregational singing united worshipers in faith and praise.
Only biblical texts were permitted
collections of metrical psalms. Psalms rewritten for congregational singing with meter, strophes, and rhymes are known as “metrical” psalms.
Gradus ad Parnassum
The name of a seminal textbook on counterpoint written by Johann Joseph Fux in 1725, but used well into the 20th century for instruction in musical theory and composition. Leopold Mozart is said to have taught his son Wolfgang from its pages. JS Bach and Beethoven both held it in great esteem, and Haydn meticulously worked out each of its exercises.
specific examples of texts painting
Rise of national styles
secular vocal music, Amateurs wanted secular music in the vernacular,
Four-part strophic song set syllabically and homophonically.
Melody in the upper voice
Simple harmony
Marked rhythmic patterns
No fixed form, though several subtypes and specific forms