1. The Roman de Fauvel
1. Reflecting the turbulent nature of the 14th century is the Roman de
Fauvel (Tale of Fauvel) written around 1317.
2. This is an allegorical narrative poem that satirizes the corruption of
the French court and the Medieval Church.
3. Written by Gerves du Bus (text) and Philippe de Vitry, who composed and compiled the music, it was a warning to the reigning French king,
Philip V. The manuscript was probably created at the French court.
4. Fauvel is a horse, who rises from the stable to rule the world. He
marries Vain Glory, and their horse-like children destroy the world.
5. Fauvel’s name stands for the sins of the corrupt politicians and clergymen of the early 14th century:
Avarice (greed)
(U interchangeable for V) — Villainy
Variete (changeablility)
Lachete (Cowardice)

6. Along with the story, there are 169 pieces of music coming from the
13th and 14th centuries in the Roman de Fauvel.
Most are monophonic chants and monophonic secular (trouvere) songs.

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There are also, however, 34 polyphonic motets, and among them are thefirst isorhythmic motets

2. Innovations in rhythmic notation during the Ars nova
1. The introduction of duple (imperfect) meter. Triple (perfect) meter(often representing the Trinity) had been used exclusively prior to the14th century.
2. The introduction of the minum (the value of 1/2 or 1/3 of asemibreve).
The results of these innovations were new meters and more rhythmicvariety. With the minim, syncopation was possible for the first time.
3. The talea and the color in an isorhythmic motet (What are the talea and color, and how might they interact?) (NAWM 24)
2A. A color is a series of pitches that repeats (a melody or a segment of
a melody)
2B. A talea is a series of rhythms that repeats.
There are usually 2 or 3 taleas to every color.
4. Guillaume de Machaut was the first composer to do what with the Ordinary
of the Mass?
Five Mvts. of the Ordinary were written polyphonically as a musical whole (NAWM 25)
5. The two styles (or textures, relationship among voices) of the movements of Guillaume de Machaut’s Messe de Notre Dame. (The “Kyrie” versus the “Gloria,”
for instance.) (NAWM 25 + Supplemental CD 1, Track 2)
1. For 4 voices with Triplum and Duplum = faster, Tenor and Contratenor = slower and supportive.
2. Kyrie, Sanctus, and Agnus dei = Isorhythmic Motet Style/Texture with a chant in the tenor.
-Kyrie — A Study in Ars nova Style
1. Isorhythm (Tenor based on a Kyrie chant)
Kyrie I = one color with 7 talea
Contratenor and two upper voices are also partially isorhythmic + long held note = makes tenor’s talea easier to hear.
2. Syncopation- Acsenting the off beats.
3.Hocket- Hiccup. One voice sings the other rests.
4. Double-Leading-Tone Cadence – Leading tone in two voices and resolves to the 5th and tonic.
5. More 3rds and 6ths –
– Alternatim Practice (How the Kyrie is performed on you CDs) = alternation of performance forcess
K (soloist sing Machaut’s 4-part setting)
K (choir sings chant)
K (soloist sing machaut’s 4-part srtting… CCC KKK)

-Gloria and Credo = mostly Conductus Style/ Texture (Homophonic and Syllabic)
Like conductus = not based on chant
*Attention to words — “Jesu Christe” = rather rare in 14th-century Music.
– *Major innovation in the Ars nova = polyphonic songs (chanson) in Treble- Dominate Style
1. Employed the Formers Fixes
–Ballade (aab)
–Virelai (AbbaA)
— Rondeau(ABaAabAB) (NAWM 27 = Rose, Liz, printemps, Verdure)
3. Elements of Style =
Melismas Near beginnings and sometimes middles of poetic lines
More 3rd and 6ths (Cadences = 5th and 8ve) Resulting in sweeter sound
Varied Rhythms
A New Lyricism

6. Hocket (NAWM 24)
Hocket (from the French “hoquet” or hiccup)
Hocket is two voices alternating in rapid succession, each resting whilethe other sings. This does produce a hiccup effect.
7. Double leading-tone cadence (Where do the leading tones resolve?)
(NAWM 25)
Leading tone in two voices and resolves to the 5th and tonic.
8. The new relationship among the voices Guillaume de Machaut developed for the French secular song in the 14th century [What voice was the most important and what was the function of the remaining voice(s)?] (NAWM 27)
The Cantus or Treble carried the principle line and a slower-moving tenor, contratenor and a fast-moving triplum supported.
9. What is so complex about the music of the Ars subtilior (NAWM 28)
Rhythmic complexities = conflicting meters, conflicting of the beat, and chains of suspensions.

Notational Wizardry — Compositions written in shapes + red and black notation.

10. The features of the three types of music from the Trecento: Madrigal
written c. 1350
1. texts = idyllic, pastoral, amatory, or satirical
2. Form = Two or more terzetti (3-line stanzas) set to the same music followed by a ritornello, meaning “refrain” (Different music and change of meter)
Jacopo da Bologna’s Non al suo amante (NAWM 29)
Music style-
1. 2 or 3 voices (More often 2)
2. One text
3.bottom voice = often supportive but also could be equal to top voice.
4. Imitation possible
5. Hocket Possible
6. Following melody with long melismas on first and last accented syllables in each line of poetry.
10B. The features of the three types of music from the Trecento: Caccia
-Caccia (Means “Hunt”), written from c. 1345-1370 (NAWM 30= Gherardello da firenze’s Tosto che l’alba)
1. Two upper voices in canon at unison slower Tenor voice supports the canon (Could have a Ritornello at the end)
2. Realistic and Humorous Touches (onomatopoetic and hocket)
10C. The features of the three types of music from the Trecento: Ballata
– Ballata (written after 1365) (NAWM 31) Francesco Landini’s Non avra ma’pieta
1. for 2 or 3 voices
2. Form = A (refrain) bba (stanza) A (refrain)– showing the influence of the French virelai
3. Ballata with 3 voices = Treble- dominated (also showing the influence of the French chanson) — 2 lower voices = supports.
4. 3rds and 6rhs in middle of phrases — cadences still on 5ths and 8ves
5. graceful melodies with melismas on fist syllable and second-from-the-last syllable of each phrase.
6. some syncopation (not as much as the french would use though)
7. “Landini cadence” or “Under-Third Cadence” Ornamentation of the final cadence. Start at the 8ve of the lowest voice 7th 6th 8ve.
11A. The 21st-century definition of musica ficta
Rules for adding accidentals according to the performance practice of a given era.
11B. Rules of musica ficta for music of the Middle Ages
1. Raise the leading tone at a cadence
2. Avoid the tritone melodically and harmonically
*3. Add an accidental if it “sounds well”
12A. Some important facts about Francesco Landini.
Best Italian composer of the Trecento
1. Son of a painter — Probably born in Florence
2. Blinded by smallpox during childhood
3. Became a composer, virtuosic player of organetto, poet, and part of intellectual circle around the University of Florence.
4. Organist and Chaplain at San Lorenzo (1365-97) in Florence
5. Composed 140 Ballatas (89 for 2 voices and 42 for 3 voices), 12 Madrigals, and 1 caccia.
12B. Some important facts about Guillaume Du Fay.

1. Born near Brussels

2. Education as a choirboy at the Cathedral of NotreDame de Cambrai beginning in 1409

3. 1420– court composer to the Malatesta family of Rimini and Pesaro

4. 1424 to beginning of 1426= returns to homeland to help his mother

5. 1426-1428= workd for Cardinal Louis Aleman in Bologna, where he becomes a priest

6. 1428-1433= singer in Pope’s choir (Rome)

7. 1433- early 1435= choirmaster at cour of Saboy for Dule Amedeus VIII and his son Louis.

8. June 1435-May 1437= singer in Pope’s choir (Florence and Bologna)

9. 1437-1439= Choir master in Savoy

10. Dec. 1439-1474= Canon at the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Cambrai minus the years 1452-53 when he was at Savoy again.

13. How one reads the four mensuration (meter) signs of the 14th century. (How many semibreves in a breve and how many minims in a semibreve?)
– Four Mensuration Signs ( Time Signatures) of the 14th Century Circle with a dot in the middle Three breves and 3 minima to one breve. Circle with no dot three breves and two minima to one breve. A C is two breves and two minima to one breve. A C with a dot in the middle is two breves and three minimas to one breve. Perfect time;Major prolation: 1 Breve = 3 breves = 9 minims Perfect time; minor prolation: 1 breve = 3 semibreves = 6 minims (grouped in 2s) Imperfect time; major prolation 1 breve = 2 semibreves = 6 minis (grouped in threes) Imperfect time; minor prlation: 1 breve = 2 semibreves = 4 minims
14. Types of compositions written for instruments in the 14th century
1. Dances (Estampies (aabbcc) one instrument and Saltarellos = multiple instruments (aabbccdd)) 2. Transcriptions of vocal music
15. How voice exchange and canon (rota) are employed in Sumer is icumen in. Also what features of 14th-century English style are present in this composition. (NAWM 23)
Sumer is icumen in (c. 1250) (NAWM 23) 1. Upper 4 voices in canon (rota) 2. Lower Voices employ Voice Exchange 3. English style = Homophonic, Very Tertian (3rd, 6ths, and triads), Rythmic modes 1 and 5, and lonian.
16. The one feature of English music (heard in John Dunstable’s music) that most accounted for its striking, new sound around the year 1400 (NAWM 33)
– Almost 100% 3rds, 6ths, and Triads – Tight Control of Dissonance
18. Forms and Features of the music of the Burgundian chanson (Think, for instance, in terms of Giles Binchois’s De plus en plus.) (NAWM 34)

(most characteristic work of the Burgundians until 1450) = 1. Text = Courtly Love

2. 3 voices (cantus = Melody; tenor = contrapuntal support; contratenor = filler)

3. ¾ or 6/8 meter with hemiola – meter is either duple or triple, but feels like the other.

4. Clear cadences often approached by melismas; Mostly syllabic otherwise.

5. Influence of English music = *almost all 3rds and 6ths with few dissonances

6. Formes Fixes (Rondeau especially, ABaAabAB) Virelai, and Ballade

7. Cadences = “under third” (“Landini”) and Burgundian 8. Bass approaching cadences may move by 4ths and 5ths

19. How is a three-voice composition employing fauxbourdon created (NAWM 36)

Writen a sixth apart and the middle voice  is ” improvised” a fourth down form the top voice.


c d e f# g (written)–Chant

g a b c  d  (improvised)

e f  g a g  (written)


Alternatim Pracitce (chant vs. fauxbourdon)


  1. Used mostly for simpler Office chants: hymns, anitphons, psalms, and canticles (magnificat)

20. Three traditions of the cantus firmus mass by the time of Guillaume Dufay. [1. How many voices?–2. In what voice is the cantus firmus?— 3. From what kind(s) of composition(s) might a composer take a cantus firmus?] (NAWM 37)

  1. 4 voices (superius, contratenor altus, tenor, contratenor bassus)
  2. cantus firmus in the next to lowest voice (tenor)–the structural voice
  3. Lowest voice (contratenor bassus) has frequents leaps of 4ths and 5ths, guiding the harmonic motion.
  4. Contratenor altus=fils out and enriches the harmony
  5. Superius has the treble melody

21. The different things a composer might do with a cantus firmus in a 15thcentury cantus firmus mass (NAWM 37)

  1. State it in the Tenor with longer notes
  2. diminish note by 1/2
  3. Invert the melody
  4. use retrograde
  5. Augmentation=2x