florentine camerata
group of artists and noblemen who met in Florence between 1573 and 1587 to discuss the possible means of recreating the music of ancient Greece. group included Galilei, Caccini and Runiccuni. no record was kept of their meetings, but we can assume conclusions based on musical entertainment Bardi provided for Medici and Lorraine wedding.
played between the acts. dramatic work, often with music, perforamed between the acts of a larger theatrical presentation like a play or opera. example is the ones used during La Pellegrina, for the Florentine wedding of 1589. each one had 4 or 5 mvts featuring polyphony and newer styles of music.
the work of the 17th century consisting of a solo voice supported by basso continuo. lies partway between song and speech. called on singers to declaim text ina style that is measured and free, yet rhythmically fluid.
basso continuo
bass line of any work from the 17th or 18th century that incorporates the bass line and harmonies to be realized aboce. in notation, was a single bass line. in practice, performers would add upper voices to fill out implied harmonies by the bass. ensemble was flexible and rarely specified by the composer.
le nuove musiche
New Works of Music by Giulio Caccini in 1602. used monody perhaps two decades before it was first notated. provided an account agout how to perform early monody.
stile concitato
developed by Monteverdi. used effects like rapid repeated notes and extended trills as symbols of anger.
permitted solo voices to declaim relatively large amounts of texts in a rapid but clear manner. syllabic style of singing which greater emphasis is givent to text than a melodic line. could approcimate the inflections of spoken wpeech while indicating specific pitches and rhythms.
theory of affections
music should be driven by the word and the affect of a text, its predominant emotion. the affect should by heightened by expressive musical devices. composers used bad leaps and poor consanances for affect. advocated a transparent polyphonic style for clearer words.
seconda prattica vs. prima prattica
seconda prattica is the second or later practice with emphasis on the projection of the text. prima prattica is the first or earlier practice. emerged when composers began to write works for solo voice with accompaniment rather than equal polyphonic voices. prima continued to flourished and the polyphonic music continued. monody didn’t kill polyphony. new structure of solo + accompaniment (harmony and clear declmation of text + virtuosity + expressive dissonance
Late Renaissance vs. Early Baroque Music
R: restrained representation of texts with word painting. B: free projection of texts with greater attention to declamation of individual words.
R: Polyphonic with all voices equal. R: imitative poly or homophonic
R: lyrical melody B: virtuosic melody
R had modal harmony and paratactic form. B was primarily tonal with paratactiv and syntactic. R had insturments replace vocal lines or double voices. B had compositions for voice only, instrument only, or for them together with instruments complementing voice lines.
3 types of early 17c Madrigals and their characteristics
Polyphonic Acapella Madrigal, Basso Continuo Madrigal, Concertato Madrigal. the concertato has voices of any number that combine with instruments, either basso continuo alone or bc and other instruments. represent a synthesis of the other two madrigals. Monteverdi’s madrigal works reflect all three styles.first four in traditional poly style, 5 introduces basso continuo, and the remaining all feature bc.
Monteverdi’s Nine Books
First four books on madrigals are in traditional poly teture of Ren. Book five introduces basso continuo, and continues in books 6-9. concerto madrigals plan an increasingly important role in 7 8 and 9.
court opera vs. public opera
courts began to commission operas routinely for festivals to celebrate weddings, births, birthdays, funerals and more. with public operas, music began to reflect tastes of a wider audience and more melody and comic elements. production values changed. plots shifted from mythological to historical and more relatable. in court operas, the hero is unflawed and very strong. opera became a big business.
Mixture of Styles in Monteverdi’s Orfeo
calls for almost 40 instruments, an astonishing demand at the time. first opera to impororate recitative into a work that was musically and dramatically satisfying. feautres an Aria in act III. has a ritornello at the beginning and repeats before each strophe.
General features of Venetian Opera
Mythological vs. historical features. complex plots, several story lines. mixed comic and serious characters. instead of a stage spectacle because of money, it focused on vocal virtuosity.
Venetian features of Monteverdi’s Poppea
mixes high seriousness with comic scenes. requires little for the chorus and orchestra and has no scenes that call for elaborate sets or machines. it has very human characters from history, instead of mythical chaaracters in Orfeo.
Monteverdi’s Biography
career straddled Renaissance and Baroque. masterd prima prattica and seconda prattica. career was in Mantua and Venice. constantly tried new styles and genres. Operas for elite audeicnes at courts, like Orfeo. Poppea was more a venetian opera, opposite of Orfeo. introduced genere concitato in his late career to capture agitated emotions. Madrigals span entire career, has 9 books. wrote a variety of masses, hyms, psalms and motets.
Lully’s Biography
had a close connection to King Louis XIV, exclusive right to produce opera in France until his death. Died after stabbing his foot while conducting his ensemble. Earliest works were ballets. Had many famous operas – Tragedie en Musique
Tragedie en musique
new operatic genre, and composed one a year. Lully and poet Quinault drew on classical mythology and chivalric romances for subject. Famous opera is Armide. Consists of these parts:
Five acts of sung drama
many interludes within acts, instrumental music mainly
interludes within indivudual acts of a tragedie en musique. instrumental music in the form of symphonies. part of structure of opera created by Lully.
French overture
overture that moves from a slow introduction with dotted rhythms to a fast imitative section. dotted rhythms were an homage to the splendor of the king. used as part of structure in tragedie en musique operas.
Central conventions of the Opera Seria
1. Plots from Classical Antiquity. Heros choose between love and duty. moral message
2. No long mixes comix and serious. only serious.
3. basic dramatic structure. dialogue in recititive, refleciton on action during Aria. very few ensembles.
4. two types of recit. secco (dry, regular dialogue) and accompanied (emotional and elevated passages)
5. Most arias were da capo, exit arias, virtuosic.
Vivaldi’s biography
served as diector of music at a large orphanicage for girls. widely published during his lifetime. wrote 400 concertos with similar form and structure. 21 surviving operas.wrote a variety of sacred works.
Rameau’s Theories
first to codify modern system of harmony baed on tradic chords. basse fondamentale not atually notated bass, but its sonourous root. established basis of harmonic thinking.
Sacred Concertos
Shutz published Small Sacre dConcertos, or motets for one to five voices with continuo in two books. his Saul, why do you persecture me is an exacple. typical for venetian like sacred concertos. early concertos were different from what we now call concertos.
Main types of musical theater in England in late 17c and early 18c
spoken drama like Shakespeare was popular. There was also the semi opera. music was very present in these plays and orchestra would play some during spoken parts and caharcters would do occasional arias. There was also the Masque genre that incorporated dance, like french operas. and the Ballad opera whihc used lower class characters.
Similarities/differences between Purcell’s Dido and Aeneas and French/Italian opera
both pieces feature french overtures with a slow intro and fast imitiative section. the singing moves raidly and fluently. there are no virtuosic solos or da capo arias in Dido.
Reasons for the popularity of the castratos
combined the range of a female voice with the power of the male voice. the effect of a grown man in soprano range was electrifying. it was considering an acceptable sacrifice. castrati enjoyed celebrity and financial rewards. main roles always went to castrati.
Similarities and differences between mid-17c oratorio and opera
the oratorio was a church based composition, it used biblical plots. both opera and oratorio used the name form. oratorios used a narrator that wasn’t present in operas. no staging or costumes in Ora. still contained recit, da cap aria, and chorus.
Characteristics of Handel’s operas and oratorios
he recycled a lot of music in each piece. sound similar. Handel popularized Opera and Oratorios in England. stopped writing operas after his company went bankrupt. his first oratorios were in italian and then in english later in his career. Handels messiah was different from oratorios in that it had no narrator, chacters or plot.
Handel’s biography vs. Bach’s biography
handel was much more famous than Bach during their lifetimes. bach never travelled outside his town and his music remained popular only in the area. Handel was born in Germany and studied in Italy before moving to England and composing there. His music was much more known throughout Europe.
Three stages of J. S. Bach’s career
Oraganist at Arnstadt and other towns for first phase. did mainly organ work. next was music director at the court in Cothen. composed works for keyboard and instrumental ensemble for court entertainment. then he was music director at St Thomas and St. Nicholas Churches in Leipzig and ocmposed church music.
Use of chorales in Bach cantatas
used melodys from chorales in his cantatas and usually named them after them.melody is always presented in the soprano. places it above an ostinato figure. usually used chorale text associated with that day the cantata was for.
Sacred Lutheran cantata
canatata usually performed just before or after the serman. bach’s cantatas were lurhtern. synthesized ostinato, chorale, ritornello and motet. use da new one every week.
Form of 17c sonatas vs. form of early 18c sonatas
sonata originally meant that which is sounded. 17c was paratactic, no form. usually for one player with larger ensemble. no fixed meaning. 18c had two kinds. sonata da camera which was chamber music for dances. sonata da chiesa which was used in church. trio sonata had three lines and 4 instruments.
Sonata da camera vs. sonata da chiesa
sonata da camera consists of a suite of dances, or collection. sonata da chesa was a church sonata. its proper for church bc it begins with a serious and majestic movement.
Early 17c meaning of the term concerto vs. late 17c meaning
in the early 17c it applied to works with any combo of musical forces working together in concert. only in the last quarter of the 17c did the opposition between soloists and ensemble becpme caracteristic. subcategories emerged like the concerto grosso (group of soloists), solo concerto, and ripieno (no soloists)
Ritornello form
an opening musical idea that returns at several points over the course of a work, usually after contrasting material. vivaldi used it in his Concerto in A minor. alternated with solo sections.
Corelli’s Concerto Grosso vs. Vivaldi’s Violin Concerto in A minor
Vivaldi’s piece has solo and tutti parts that are structurally interdependent. it makes far greater use of the ritornello princle than Corelli. Corelli’s piece is not built around recurring themes or ritornelli. a motoric rhythm technique is present in both pieces and typical of baroque music. forward motion.
Most common dances of a suite and their characteristics
allemande, moderate flowing duple meter german
courante, fast triple meter french
sarabande, slow triple meter spanish
gigue, fast triple, dotted rhythms, anglo-irish
Ricercar vs. fugue
fugue has single thematic idea subjected to imitative treatment for entire work. rooted in texture rather than form. ricercar originated as an improvisatory genre for lute and evolved into an imitative genre for keyboard instruments. strict forms of counterpoint in the old style
Choral prelude
intended to serve as instrumental introductions to the congregational singing in a church. usually brif and straightforward. melody is usually in top voice. Bach’s were unique in that his lower voices are more chromatic and intricate. there is imitation in lower voices.
Bass variations and their use in vocal AND instrumental music of the Baroque
bass ostinato is present at all times with everchanging counter melody aboce it. chaconne and passacaglia were most common. Bach’s Goldberg Variations were most famous.