intellectual 18th century philosophy movement whose main themes were reason, nature and progress. The people of the Enlightenment believed in individual faith, practical morality, naturalness, and promoting universal education & social equality.
Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau leading French Enlightment thinkers who developed doctrines about individual human rights in response to the therrible inequalities between the common people and the privileged classes.
Charles Burney
an 18th century observer and author who wrote A General History of Music, the book as a response to the public’s demand for reading musica nd its past.
Galant Style
18th century musical style that featured song-like melodies, short phrases, frequent cadences, and light accompaniment. FIND EXAMPLE ON TEST DATE.
Empfindsams style
(sensitive/instrumental style) close relative of gallant style, featuring surprising turns of harmony, chromaticism, nervous rhythms and speech-like melodies. ex. CPE bach, Sonata in A major H186 wq 55/4 2nd movement.
the quality of being periodic, meaning emphasized frequent rests, articulations between phrases & periods.
Heinrich Christoph Koch
18th century theorist who published 3 volumes of the “Introductory Essay on Composition” treatise, aimed to teach amaterus who wished to learn how to compose. It mainly compared a musical phrase to a subject and predicate.
Classical music
music in tradition of repertoire msucial masterworks fromed int he 19th century, including lesser works int eh same genre possessing noble simplicity, balance, formal perfection, diversity with unity.
Classic Period Music
the era between 1730-1815 overlapping between Baroque and Romantic periods.
Alberti Bass
Broken Chord Accompaniment common in the Second half of the 18th century and named after Domenico Alberrti, who used in the figuration frequently. ex. Alberti, opening of Sonata II from from VIII sonate per cembalo, Op. 1
opera buffa
18th century genre of Italian comic opera, sing throughout. The characters were traditionally ordinary people from present day. They made caricatures of aristocrats, vain women, old men, servants and military commanders. The origin lies incommedia dell arte.
opera seria
(serious opera) 18th century, genre of Italian opera, on a serious subject but normally with a happy ending without comic characters and scenes.
ex. Johann Adolf Hasse-Cleofide Act 2 scene 9.
Carlo Goldoni
Italian dramatist who introduced refinements in the comic opera libretto where serious, sentimental woeful plots appeared with comic ones concurrently . Example: La buona figliuola-Goldoni, Pamela-Samuel Richardson.
Pietro Metastasio
Italian poet who became Vienna’s court poet. His owrks promoted morality, enlgithened rulers, usually ending with heroism. Most of his works included 2 pairs of overs. He wrote for Mozart and Gluck.
Example: La Clemenza di Tito
Ensemble finale
when at the end of the act, all character sare brought on stage with the action continued becoming more animated until all sign together.
example. Nicola Cogroscino & Baladassare Galuppi’s comic operas .
Querelle des bouffons
(Quarrel of the comic actors)pamphlet war in Paris mid-1750s between French and Italian Operas.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
(1717-1778)man who praised Italian composers’ emphasis on melodity and the ability to express any motion. he was an Fr. Enlightment leader and a major influence on Romanticism. He favored Italian opera due to its light accompaniment, melody vs. ctrpt. he wrote le devin du Village ( the Village soothsayer)
Opera Comique
In the 18th century light Frenchcomic opera which used spoken dialogue instead of recitatives. I tused vaudevilles and original airs. Example would be Anche Gretry’s Richard Coeur de Lion.
Ballad Opera
enrge of 18th century English comic play featuring songs in which new words are set to borrowed tunes and hass imple airs making fun of London society. Example. John Gay’s Beggars opera.
(translates to singing play) German genre of Opera, featuring spoken dialogue interspersed with songs, choruses, and instrumental music.
Raniero de calzabigi
gluck’s librettist, the poet he collaborated with for Orfeo ed Eurdice and Alceste wi which Gluck championed poetry over voice.
type of piano from the 18th or early 19th centuries distinguished from later pianos by a variety of features, notably smaller range and strings attached to a wooden rather than metal frame.
balanced binary form
binary form in which the latter part of the 1st section returns at the end of the 2nd section but in tonic. FIND PIECE(SONATA) THAT IS THAT IS THIS.
Rounded Binary form
binary form in which the bginning or all of the 1st section returns in tonic in the latter part of the 2nd section.
String Quartet
standard chamber ensemble consisting of 2 violins, viola an cello.
SONATa form
form typically used in 1st movements of sonatas, instrumental chamber works, symphonies, during the classic and romantic periods. In part 1 has (exposition) opening theme, second theme, transition. part 2 has new idea(b) material called the development and lastly the recap, reprises a section.
In sonata from, 1st part of mof movement in which main themes are stated beginning in tonic and usually closing in the dominant.
In sonata form, the sectiona fter the exposition, which modulates through avariety of keys which themes fromt eh exposition are represented in new ways.
In sonata form, the 3rd mains section which restates the material rom exposition noramllyi nton ic.
a supplementary ending to a composition or movement, a concluding section that lies outside the form usuallyd escribed.
Slow movement sonata form
classic era variant of sonata form that omits the development.
Variations form
form that present an interrupted series of variatins ona theme, melody, bass line, harmonic plan on the musical subject.
minuet and trio form
form that joins binary form movements to create an ABA, pattern where A is the minuet and trio is the B.
rondo form
musical form in which 1st or main sections recur usually int onic between subsidiary sections or episodes. Rondo form: ABACA.
in france, it is a romantic song on sentimental text wihout simple xpressive melody, without the typical ornamentation, over plain accompaniment.
song with german worths, whthere monophonic polyphonic song in the renaissance and songs for voice and piano int he 18th and 19th centuries. Example, JF.Reichardt, Erlkonig.
Bay psalm book
1st book in north America containing the 13 melodies and singing the pslasm by the Puritans who settlend in New England.
the continental harmony
Billings collection se to plain tunes( homonic 4 part harmonization of new melodies and fuging tunes. example chester and Creation.
Fuging tunes
18th century American type of Psalm of hym tune that features a passage in free imitation usually preceded by Homophonic sections. example: William billings, Creation from the Continental harmony Colelction.
German speaking protestant moravians who newlys ettled in North America (pa and Nc) and used concerted arias, motets. example: herbst, jf. peter, J. Antes.
30 harpsichord sonatas published in 1738 by Domenico Scarlatti.
Frederick the Great
The person whose court CPEBach worked in at berlin from 1740-68.
Essay on the True art of playing keyboard insturments
an essay written by CPE BAch that is said be an important source f information in musical thought abnd practice of the period.
Sechs clavier sonaten Fur kenner und Liebhaber (6 clavier sonatas from Connoiseurs and Amaterus.
the set of sonatas composed by CPE BAch that utilized empfindsam style. Specific characteristics were scotch snaps, dotted figures, triplets, and running notes. The effects include descension(sighs), appoggiaturas(melancholy) and turns with harmonic shifts( excitement).
originated from Italy, it is an opera overture from which symphony takes its name.
while elector palastine’s court was in place, it was one of the musical centers of Europe where the Mannheim orchestra became famous und Stamitz, performing his, No.8 in E flat major, 1st movement.
Symphonie Concertante
conterto like genre of the late 18th and early 19th centuries for2 or more instruments and orchestra, characterized by its lightheartedness and melodic variety.
concerto first movement form
A from that contains solos sections reminiscent of Sonata form enclosed between 4 orchestral ritornellos. Example: JC Bach concerto for harpsichord/piano and strings in E flat major Op. 7 No.5
in concertos, it is introduced by a 6/4 chord followed by a dominant. It is ahighly embellished passage, often improvised,important cadence and it occurs before the end of the A section.
entertainment music used as background to dinner parties or informal concerts.
large work for orchestra, usually in 4 movements. Sammartini Sumphony in F major, no. 32 1st movement.