Artist during the Renaissance. Italian, began to depict the human form in a new and fundamentally different way. Faces are more realistic and individualized. Fresco (The Wedding Procession) 1305
Johannes Tinctoris
1435-1511. wrote Book on the Art of Counterpoint, calls for trusting the judgement of his ears, using Thirds frequently. considered sounding music as important as mathematical music, and broke musical tradition, beginning the Renaissance.
John Dunstable
Composer of the English Contenance Angloise. Wrote Quam pulchra es, a motet with three voices of equal weight, new material, and featuring thirds. orginated the new musical style described by Tinctoris.
Guillaume Du Fay
early works organized by isorhythm as they explored new sonorities. Nuper rosarum flores was written for the consecration of the newoly copleted dome of the cathedral in Florence, mixing old and new.
Johannes Ockeghem
wrote Missa prolationum. only notated two of the four voices, every mvmt is a double canon so others can be derived. each voice has own unique mensuration. had different meters for each voice with same sequence of pitches.
Josquin des Prez
Ave Maria..virgo serana. worked within framework of the eight mode system. acoids strong sense of meter or consistent rhythm.
Antoine Busnois
wrote popular Chanson fortuna desperata, which was a huge hit. all three voices used in Josquin’s Kyrie music shifted from duple to triple and makes rhythm move slower.
Florentine Duomo
Dome of the Florence Cathedral. motet Nuper rosarum flores, written by Du Fay, for the consecration of the the dome, mixed old style and new sonorities. used cantus firmus that derived from an introit that was used in ceremonies for new churches, fittingly.
Paratactic form
based on descrete units that are more or less independent from one another. A B C… form. no unifying themes or rhytmic patterns run throught the works as a whole. characteristic of renaissance music.
Pervading imitation
a series of musical ideas are stated imitatively in all voices throughout an entire work or section. all essentially same musical ideas, all voices equal in melodies. Ave Maria…Virgo Serena… by Josquin
Cantus firmus mass
derive their structuring melodies from plainchant, secular song, or soggetto cavato or arrangement of solminzation syllables. cantus firmus can remain strictly in the tenor, or ostinato where it appears in one voice at all times, or free technique.
canonic mass
structured according to principle of strict canon. one of the notated voices generates a second. melodic repetition.
mensuration canon
Ockeghem’s Missa prolationum.each pair of voices presents same material moving in different prolations, or mensurations. shown in modern editions as different meters. when all four voices are present, so are all of the basic mensurations.
imitation mass
incorporated all voices of existing work into the new work, or at least opening sections of key mvts. example is Josquin Missa Fortuna Desperata. inverts and augments original chanson.
paraphrase mass
involves borrowing an existing melodic idea but elaborating it freely in all voices of new work. Josquin’s Missa Pange Lingua, all four voices use plainchant hymn in embellished form. texture very homogenous.
soggeto cavato mass
cantus firmus subject is carved out of a given word or name. derived from the solmization syllables corresponding to the Duke of Ferrar’as name. type of cantus firmus mass.
Scholasticism vs. humanism and how they are reflected in music
scholasticism focused on god and abstract thought, while humanism focused on humans and emperical evidence. humanism took control and ideas like music of the spheres disappeared with out evidence. third became known as consonant, not dissonant. called for trusting judgement of ears.
Contenance angloise
new way of composing with lively consonances, new kind of sonority with thirds fifths and sixths. main composer John Dunstable, 40years before Tinctoris. lies with the english.
Franco-flemish composers in the 15c and their careers
Guillaume Du Fay, leading composer of his day. most of complete settingof ordinary mass based on a single cantus firumus. wrote iso rhythmic motets. last prominent composer to use plainchant. wrote many secular music in french. Josquin des Prez wrote in virtually every vocal genre of his time. worked with another Josquin composer so his exact number of works is uncertain.
Horizontal vs. vertical concept of musical composition
vertical was the addition of triads to harmonies, and the use of thirds fifths and sixths. musical ideas were often used and repeated in all four voices, some masses used existing works.
14c French chanson and Italian song vs. 15 French and Italian secular song
formes fixes from 14c disappeared, only the rondeau remained. 15c had greater equality of voices and more melodic. instruments could be substituted in vocal lines.
Regressive vs. progressive features in Du Fay’s “Nuper rosarum flores”
regressive because it still used isorhythm from the 14c. it also used a cantus firmus from an old introit. it was progressive though because it featured counterpoint and increased melodic material in each part.
Clement Janequin
composed Parisian chansons. his works were widely disseminated by the Parisian music publisher. he composed onomotopoeic chansons, like La Guerre
Francesca Petrarca
14th century poet, revived interest in his poems began rise of the 16th cent madrigal. his attention to rhymes, rhythms and sonorities of the Italian language were well regarded.
The Three Ladies of Ferrara
a group of talented singers whose performances were a legend around Europe. “Madrgials for One, Two, or Three Sopranos were written for them. Formed in Ferrara, Italy.
El Greco
mannerist painter. he painted Laocoon in 1610. used distotion, ecaggeration, and unsettling juxtaposition characteristic of mannerist art.
Carlo Gesualdo
Prince of Venosa, has a haunting life sotry, including an obsession with music. he was an excellent keyboadist and lutenist. he murdered his first wife and her lover and was exiled in Ferrara. wrote four books of madrigals and 3 of sacred music.
Orlande de Lassus
music ranges from deeply seerios to the ribald, on e of the most cosmopolitan composers ever. composed more than 2000 pieces in almost every genre of his era. greatly explored chromaticism.
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
first 16th composer to have complete works published. his music had equal voices, seamless rhythmic flow, controlled dissonance, and flawless part writing. “Missa Papae Marcelli” convinced Council of Trent not to ban polyphonic music, according to legend.
any arrangement of an existing vocal work for a plucked string instrument or keyboard. first publication ever devoted entirely to keyboard music in 1517 consists entirely of intabulations of frottole. this repertory sold well.
a vocal composition of three or more voices, setting mostly secular texts in the 1530s in Italy. not related to 14th century madrigal. madrigal is through-composed, setting each line of text to essentially new music. allowed for explicit word painting. began with Francesco Petrarca revival.
suggests something commonplace or vulgar. term for all the subgenres of the madrigal that had suggestive imagery.
parisian chanson
new genre of song in 1520s in French capital. lighter and more chordally oriented than earlier chansons. like frottola, very homorhythmic. melodies generally confined to upper line.
native composers set texts in their own language. very broad genre. tended to be lighthearted and sarcastic or ironic, instead of focusing on courtly love. avoided imitation and focused on dancelike rhythms with syncopation and hemiola.
musica transalpina
published in 1588, anthology of 57 italian madrigals with texts translated to english. english were infatuated with Italian things. this was the first transplanted Italian madirgals in England.
musica reservata
music reserved for a select audience of elite noble born or aristocratic listeners. demanding for performers and listeners, never meant for wide distribution. Lassus never published his works belonging to this category of music.
Early 16c ricercar vs. late 16c ricercar
early 16c ricercar was a freely composed work that seeks out a particular mode or thematic idea. the late 16c was primarily imitative, and was seeking out exploration of the contrapuntal possibilities in a theme. it was improvisatory vs. imitative and contrapuntal.
Martin Luther’s attitudes to music
Luther recognized the power of music to spread Protestantism. never objected to polyphonic texture or Latin texts. encouraged congregational singing of hymns and participation in worship. stated that nothing else was to be associated as closely with the Word of God as music.
Motet vs. anthem
motets written in the english language eventually came to be known as anthems. had two forms: full and verse. the full anthem is for chorus throughout and the verse alternates choral with solo &instrument passages. motets were usually not for chorus.
The Council of Trent and its importance for the development of church music
eliminated a number of plainchants that had been added to the liturgy since medieval times. declared that function of sacred music was to serve the text and text should be clear to listeners. discouraged using secular music as a model for sacred compositions.
Public vs. private dance music
Mannerism in the visual arts and in music
in art mannerism refers to distorgion, exaggeration, and unsettling juxtaposition. in music it refers to a small collection of music in the late 16c that used dissonance, unusual harmonic progression, and ecaggerated word painting. Lassus focused on chromatic ideas in Prophetiae sibyllarum.
tenorlied vs. diskantlied
the tenorlied was one of the most prominent varieties of song in 16c Germany. incorporated a well known tune in the tnoer making it a secular cantus firmus genre. diskantlied had all four voices moving at same speed.