What are the dates for the Classic Era in music?
What two pre-Classic styles merged to create the so-called Classic style?
Stile Galant and Empfindsamer Stil
Haydn’s Dates
Mozart’s Dates
Beethoven’s Dates
List 8 trademarks of Classical music
3.Form dictates content
4.Mostly Homophonic (counterpoint for development)
5.Major Keys predominate
6.More Secondary dominants
7.Slow Harmonic Rhythm
8.Melodies composed for developmental possibilities (motivic development)
Which Classical composer worked best with the medium of opera?
What Classical composer made the greatest contribution to the development of the Classical symphony?
Who composed the first string quartets?
Franz Xavier Richter
What composer is sometimes labeled the “Creator of the String Quartet”
What did the phrase “cembalo o fortepiano” imply?
the piano was slowly gaining popularity
What are the immediate precursors of the string quartet?
Trio Sonatas and Quartet Symphonies
What are divertimenti and how were they used?
diverse movements, light chamber music
What are synonyms for divertimento?
Serenade, Cassation, Notturno
Define symphonie concertante
orchestral form featuring 2 or more virtuoso soloists
Who was the first composer to precede sonata form with a slow introduction on a regular basis?
Leopold Hoffman
Which of Mozart’s symphonies make use of a slow introduction?
36 38 39
What composer greatly influenced Mozart’s keyboard concerti?
J. C. Bach (London Bach)
What composer brought the Classical keyboard concerto to a state of perfection?
Why is Cristoph Willibald Gluck considered a cosmopolitan composer?
Traveled a lot
Well learned of regional styles
Where were Gluck’s goals for opera reform stated?
What were Gluck’s goals for opera reform? (4)
1. Music should not be excessively decorated, appropriate for drama
2.Aria should be constructed to meet the dramatic needs
3. Replace secco recitative with accompagnato recitative
4. Relate the overture to drama that followed
What are the strengths of Gluck’s musical style? (4)
1.Simplicity in melodies
2.Balanced phrases
3.Integration of chorus & ballet
4.Beautiful portrayal of human emotions
What is Gluck’s best opera?
Orfeo & Euridice
What family did Haydn work for for almost 30 years?
Esterhazy family
Why was Haydn such a prolific composer?
He had deadlines
List three programmatic symphonies by Haydn.
6,7,8 : Le Matin, Le Midi, Le Soir (morning, noon, night)
Who prepared the thematic catalogue of Haydn’s music? Mozart’s?
Haydn – Hoboken
Mozart – Koechel
What number is Haydns Horn Signal?
What number is Haydn’s Military Symphony?
Sequence of movements in Classic symphony
Fast, Slow, Dance, Fast
What number is Haydn’s Farewell symphony?
Which of Haydn’s symphonies are the London Symphonies?
Which symphonies are Haydn’s London symphonies?
1st set: 93-98
2nd set: 99-104
What is Unique about the 2nd movement of Haydn’s Military Symphony?
Used Military percussion
Turkish qualities (A minor & C Minor, turns, alternating 2nds)
What are features of the London Symphonies? (6)
1.Large orchestra
2. Slow intro
3. ” ” in parallel minor
4.Develops outside the development sections
5.Long codas to balance longer development
6. 3rd movement is minuet trio, but more like scherzo
Which schools and composers influenced Mozart’s symphonic style?
Sammartini, Mannheim, J.C. Bach, Haydn
Who composed the Haydn string quartets?
Why can it be said that Mozart’s work represent a “synthesis of national styles”?
1.French stile gallant
2.Italian lyricism
3.German gravity, counterpoint, sturm % drang
What European orchestra inspired Mozart to use more clarinet?
List several of Mozart’s best choral works
Coronation Mass, Requiem mass, Motet Ave Verum
List several important types of Mozart’s chamber music besides string quartets
flute quartets, quintets, clarinet quintets
What opera seria by Mozart was commisioned by the city of Munich
In what city were most of Mozart’s masterworks composed?
Which are Mozart’s “da Ponte” operas? Are they “buffa” or “seria”
Buffa mix (Drama giocoso)
1. Don Giovanni
2.Marriage of Figaro
3.Cosi Fan Tutte
What are the strengths of Mozart’s da ponte operas?
Aristocrats look dumb compared to the witty servants
What is mozart’s most famous serenade?
Ein musicalischer Spass (a musical joke)
What was Mozart’s most productive year?
Who completed Mozart’s Requiem?
What is exceptional about Mozart’s last symphonies?
Strange instrumentation
Development outside development
Counterpoint in development
Soloistic treatment of winds
Slow intro