Liber Usualis
a useful 20th century anthology of many different kinds of chants from the both the Mass and the Office
Mass Proper and Ordinary
The Mass consists of a mixture of spoken, recited, and sung elements, some of which took place in every celebration of Mass (The ordinary) some of which were specific to particular Sundays or feast days (the propers).
musical or textual addition to an existing chant
Musica enchiriadis
Musica enchiriadis is an anonymous musical treatise of the 9th century (middle ages). It is the first surviving attempt to set up a system of rules for polyphony in classical music.
early polyphony of the late Middle Ages that consists of one or more voice parts accompanying the cantus firmus often in parallel motion at a fourth, fifth, or octave above or below
Ars nova
Developments in notation allowed notes to be written with greater independence of rhythm, shunning the limitations of the rhythmic modes which prevailed in the thirteenth century; secular music acquired much of the polyphonic sophistication previously found only in sacred music; and new techniques and forms, such as isorhythm and the isorhythmic motet, became prevalent. The overall aesthetic effect of these changes was to create music of greater expressiveness and variety than had been the case in the thirteenth century. Philippe de Vitry wrote about the Ars Nova, and Machaut is the greatest practitioner of this style
musica ficta
was a term used in European music theory from the late 12th century to about 1600 to describe any pitches, whether notated or to be added by performers in accordance with their training, that lie outside the system of musica recta or musica vera (‘correct’ or ‘true’ music) as defined by the hexachord system of Guido of Arezzo.
Isorhythm is a musical technique that arranges a fixed pattern of pitches with a repeating rhythmic pattern. consists of an order of durations or rhythms, called a talea, which is repeated within a tenor melody whose pitch content or series, called the color (repetition), varied in the number of members from the talea.
is a technique of musical harmonisation used in the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance, particularly by composers of the Burgundian School. Guillaume Dufay was a prominent practitioner of the form, and may have been its inventor. The homophony and mostly parallel harmony allows the text of the mostly liturgical lyrics to be understood clearly.
cantus firmus
is a pre-existing melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition
Cyclic Mass
the cyclic mass was a setting of the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Mass, in which each of the movements – Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei – shared a common musical theme, commonly a cantus firmus, thus making it a unified whole.
formes fixes
are the three fourteenth- and fifteenth-centuries French poetic forms: the ballade, rondeau and virelai. Each was also a musical form, generally a chanson, and all consisted of a complex pattern of repetition of verses and a refrain with musical content in two main sections.
Guillaume Dufay
Dufay was one of the last composers to make use of late-medieval polyphonic structural techniques such as isorhythm and one of the first to employ the more mellifluous harmonies, phrasing and melodies characteristic of the early Renaissance. His compositions within the larger genres (masses, motets and chansons) are mostly similar to each other
William Byrd
English organist and composer of the Shakespearean age who is best known for his development of the English madrigal. He also wrote virginal and organ music that elevated the English keyboard style. Also wrote Anglican church music
L’Homme arme
” was a French secular song from the time of the Renaissance. It was the most popular tune used for musical settings of the Ordinary of the Mass: over 40 separate compositions entitled Missa L’homme arme survive from the period.
A madrigal is a secular vocal music composition, usually a partsong, of the Renaissance and early Baroque eras. Traditionally, polyphonic madrigals are unaccompanied; the number of voices varies from two to eight, and most frequently from three to six.
seconda prattica
Term used in Italy the early 17th century to distinguish the Renaissance polyphonic style ( prima prattica) from the Baroque style ( seconda prattica).
Besides many motets and masses composed for Catholic Church services, some composers wrote Anthem to be sung by the choir during services in Protestant Churches. The Anthem grew out of the motet, but it was sung in English not Latin.
There are two types of Anthem:

FULL ANTHEM sung by choir throughout, usually accompanied
VERSE ANTHEM verse sung by one or more soloists, accompanied by organ or viols, alternate with sections where the whole choir joins in.

Giovanni Gabrieli
was an Italian composer and organist. He was one of the most influential musicians of his time, and represents the culmination of the style of the Venetian School, at the time of the shift from Renaissance to Baroque idioms.
Sonata da chiesa
Sonata da chiesa (Italian for church sonata) is an instrumental composition dating from the Baroque period, generally consisting of four movements. More than one melody was often used, and the movements were ordered slow–fast–slow–fast with respect to tempo. The second movement was usually a fugal allegro, and the third and fourth were binary forms that sometimes resembled the sarabande and gigue.
is German for “keyboard practice,” In late 17th and early 18th centuries this was a common title for keyboard music collections. Associated with Bach
Opera seria
Opera seria built upon the conventions of the High Baroque era by developing and exploiting the da capo aria
The Musical Offering
), BWV 1079, is a collection of canons and fugues and other pieces of music by Johann Sebastian Bach, all based on a single musical theme given to him by Frederick the Great (Frederick II of Prussia), to whom they are dedicated. Some of the canons of The Musical Offering are represented in the original score by no more than a short monodic melody of a few measures, with a more or less enigmatic inscription in Latin above the melody. These compositions are called the riddle fugues (or sometimes, more appropriately, the riddle canons). The performer(s) is/are supposed to interpret the music as a multi-part piece (a piece with several intertwining melodies), while solving the “riddle”. Some of these riddles have been explained to have more than one possible “solution”, although nowadays most printed editions of the score give a single, more or less “standard” solution of the riddle, so that interpreters can just play, without having to worry about the Latin, or the riddle.
is a form of German-language music drama, now regarded as a genre of opera.[1] It is characterized by spoken dialogue, which is alternated with ensembles, songs, ballads, and arias which were often strophic, or folk-like. Singspiel plots are generally comic or romantic in nature, and frequently include elements of magic, fantastical creatures, and comically exaggerated characterizations of good and evil.
London Symphonies
, were composed by Joseph Haydn between 1791 and 1795. They can be categorized into two groups: Symphonies Nos. 93 through 98, which were composed during Haydn’s first visit to London, and Symphonies Nos. 99 through 104, composed in Vienna and London for Haydn’s second London visit. Toward the end of his career, in the London Symphonies, Haydn introduced clarinets as part of the woodwind section, a change that was to be permanent.
Mozart’s “Haydn” quartets
by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart are a set of six string quartets published in 1785 in Vienna, dedicated to the composer Joseph Haydn. They are considered[by whom?] to be the pinnacle of Classical string quartet writing, containing some of Mozart’s most memorable melodic writing and refined compositional thought.
a recurrent theme throughout a musical or literary composition, associated with a particular person, idea, or situation.
Die schone Mullerin
is a song cycle by Franz Schubert based on poems by Wilhelm Muller. It is the earliest extended song cycle to be widely performed. The work is considered one of Schubert’s most important, and it is widely performed and recorded.
(German for sound-color-melody) is a musical technique that involves splitting a musical line or melody between several instruments, rather than assigning it to just one instrument (or set of instruments), thereby adding color (timbre) and texture to the melodic line.
was a twentieth-century trend, particularly current in the period between the two World Wars, in which composers sought to return to aesthetic precepts associated with the broadly defined concept of “classicism”, namely order, balance, clarity, economy, and emotional restraint. As such, neoclassicism was a reaction against the unrestrained emotionalism and perceived formlessness of late Romanticism, as well as a “call to order” after the experimental ferment of the first two decades of the twentieth century. The neoclassical impulse found its expression in such features as the use of pared-down performing forces, an emphasis on rhythm and on contrapuntal texture, an updated or expanded tonal harmony, and a concentration on absolute music as opposed to Romantic program music. In form and thematic technique, neoclassical music often drew inspiration from music of the 18th century, though the inspiring canon belonged as frequently to the Baroque and even earlier periods as to the Classical period—for this reason, music which draws inspiration specifically from the Baroque is sometimes termed Neo-Baroque music. Neoclassicism had two distinct national lines of development, French (proceeding partly from the influence of Erik Satie and represented by Igor Stravinsky), and German (proceeding from the “New Objectivity” of Ferruccio Busoni and represented by Paul Hindemith.) Neoclassicism was an aesthetic trend rather than an organized movement; even many composers not usually thought of as “neoclassicists” absorbed elements of the style.
is a German term, essentially meaning “utility music,” for music that exists not only for its own sake, but which was composed for some specific, identifiable purpose. This purpose can be a particular historical event, like a political rally or a military ceremony, or it can be more general, as with music written to accompany dance, or music written for amateurs or students to perform.
The term expressionism “was probably first applied to music in 1918, especially to Schoenberg”, because like the painter Kandinsky he avoided “traditional forms of beauty” to convey powerful feelings in his music.[56] Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern and Alban Berg, the members of the Second Viennese School, are important Expressionists