Additive Meter

  • Combinations of groups of 2 and 3
  • Found in Eastern European Music
  • Used by Bela Bartok
  • Mvt 4 of Music for Strings Percussion and Celesta uses 2+3+3

 Guido Adler

  • Musicology instructor to Webern
  • University of Vienna

Alexander Nevsky

  • Composed by Prokofiev
  • film score (1938)
  • cantata drawn from the film score
  • USSR period

Arch Form

  • Used in Bartok’s Music for … and Celesta 3rd Movement

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J.S. Bach


(in relation to Bartok)

  • Piano Concerto No. 2
    • Movement 1=homage to Bach
      • 3rd contrasting section: piano and orchestra play a takeoff on a Bach invention

Bela Bartok

  • Collected and studied peasant music with Kodaly;
  • Used E. European elements
    • Additive Meter
    • Folk harmonies and melodies
  • Also used Western elements
  • Known for synthesis of Western and non-western

Alban Berg

  • Student of Schoenberg
  • Used classical forms and means of expression for post-tonal music.

James A. Bland

  • Composed ;Oh dem golden slippers; which was quoted by Ives in General William Booth Enters into Heaven.

Bluebeard’s Castle

  • Bartok
  • One-act opera
  • Combines Hungarian folk elements with influences from Debussy’s Pelleas et Melisande

;The Book of the Hanging Gardens

  • Schoenberg
  • Atonal
  • Cycle of 15 songs
  • Based on The Book of the Hanging Gardens by Stefan George.

Georg Buchner

  • Wrote the fragmented play ;Wozzeck; which Berg used as a basis for his expressionist opera.

Camptown Races

  • Quoted in Ive’s Symphony No. 2

Carinthian folk song



Cavatina Form

  • Sonata allegro form with no exposition or repeated development

Chamber Concerto

  • Berg
  • ???


The "Classical" Symphony

  • Prokofiev
  • Symphony No. 1
  • Neo-classicism
    • Classical forms
    • Modern everything else
  • Uses unexpected changes in harmony and rhythm

Cleansing Fountain


  • Quoted in Ive’s General William Booth…
  • presented in cumulative form
  • coincides with ;Are you washed in the blood of the lamb;

Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean

  • Quoted in Ive’s Symphony No. 2

Concerto for Orchestra

  • Bartok
  • Commissioned by Koussevitzky
  • Five Movements
  • "concerto" because all principal players had solos

Cumulative Form

  • Theme is stated in fragments that become progressively more whole until entire theme is played
  • Used in General William Booth with "Cleansing Fountain" theme.

Sergey Eisenstein

  • Director of Alexander Nevsky (Prokofiev)

The Emancipation of Dissonance

  • Schoenberg
  • "Freeing dissonance from its need to resolve
  • From atonal period

Ralph Waldo Emerson

  • New England Transcendentalist
  • Wrote "Nature"


  • Schoenberg
  • Atonal
  • One-character opera for soprano
  • Expressionism
  • No returning themes or motives

"Es is genug; so nimm denn meinen Geist"

  • Bach
  • Quoted in the 4th movement of Berg’s Violin Concerto


  • Study of non-western music
  • Bartok was pioneer


  • seeks to express deep personal feelings
  • in music, avoids all traditional forms of ;beauty;


  • Used to punctuate in Bartok’s Piano Concerto No. 2: I, III

Five Pieces for Orchestra, Op. 10

  • Webern
  • Atonal
  • No. 4 is only 6 measures long
  • Uses complex network of pitches and rhythms

From Jewish Folk Poetry

  • ???

General William Booth Enters into Heaven

  • Ives
  • Poem by Vachel Lindsay
  • Juxtaposes Technical complexity and expressivity
  • Cumulative form
  • Quotes:
    • Oh dem Golden Slippers
    • Reveille
    • Cleansing Fountain

General William Booth Enters into Heaven

  • Ives

Albert Giraud

  • Wrote Pierot Lunaire poetic cycle

Manon Gropius

  • Daughter of Alma Mahler
  • Berg’s Violin Concerto in honor of her death


  • Certain aspects of music are left undefined
  • Players have a degree of choice
  • Used in Ive’s "The Unanswered Question"


  • in 12-tone row: reversing the upward or downward direction of each interval

Ivan the Terrible

  • Prokofiev
  • Film by Eisenstein

Charles Ives

  • First "real" American composer
  • Used hymns and popular tunes from the New England area in his works
  • Made living as principal partner at Insurance company so was free to compose as he wished
  • Used dissonance to "shock" his audience
  • Homophobic – created imaginary character "Rollo" to take out aggressions towards weak, sissy men


  • changing tone color=changing pitches in a melody
  • used by Schoenberg and also Webern in Symphony, Op. 21

Sergei Koussevitzky

  • Conductor of Boston Symphony Orchestra
  • Commissioned "Concerto for Orchestra" from Bartok

Louis Krasner

  • Violinist
  • Commissioned Violin Concerto from Berg

Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District

  • Shostakovich
  • opera
  • closed down due to Stalin’s distaste toward the discordant modern music, violence and sex

Lieutenant Kije

  • Prokofiev
  • Film score

Vachel Lindsay

  • Wrote poem ;General William Booth Enters Into Heaven; on which the Ive’s piece was based

Long, Long Ago

  • Quoted in Ive’s Symphony No. 2

The Love for Three Oranges

  • Prokofiev
  • Opera (1919)


  • Berg
  • 12-tone opera
  • Incomplete upon death

Lyric Suite

  • Berg
  • 12-tone string quartet


  • Using pitches outside of western pitches (divisions different than on keyboard)
  • Used by Ives


  • Bartok
  • Set of 153 piano pieces of graded difficulty

The Miraculous Mandarin

  • Bartok
  • Pantomime

Multimovement-in-a-single-movement form

  • Schoenberg
  • fusion of sonata-allegro movement with multi-movement sonata cycle
  • Used in String Quartet in D minor

Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta

  • Bartok
  • symphony in 4 movements for special orchestra
    • I = fugue
    • II = sonata-allegro
    • III = slow arch
    • IV = rondo
  • synthesizes E. folk music and W. art music
  • Commissioned by Paul Sancher of the Bassel Chamber Orchestra

New England Holidays

  • Ives
  • Captures sounds and feelings from 4 holidays
    • Washington’s Birthday
    • Decoration Day (Memorial Day)
    • Fourth of July
    • Thanksgiving

New England Transcendentalism

  • Belief in interrelation of all things and great uniting of "over soul" of the universe.

Oh Dem Golden Slippers

  • Quoted by Ives in General William Booth enters into Heaven


  • Same forward and Backward