Stile concertato
17th century compositions combining voices with instruments that play different parts.
contrasting forces brought together in a harmonious ensemble; broader than the definition of just a soloist with the orchestra
an instance of text painting
polyphonic setting of a poem
recitatif simple
french recitative that followed the general contours of spoken French while shifting the metric notation between duple and triple to allow the most natural declamation of the words.
Recitatif mesure
a more songlike, uniformly measured style
piece for keyboard instrument or lute resembling an improvisation that may include imitative sections or may serve as a prelude to an independent fugue; used as a tuning mechanism at the start of a piece
Bach’s toccatas
a toccata, then a long fugue
Most toccatas
toccata, then fugue, then toccata
from the late sixteenth century on, an instrumental piece that treats one or more subjects in imitation
broadly, any piece for instruments; often scored for one or two melody instruments with basso continuo. idiomatic.
chorale prelude
relatively short setting for organ of a chorale melody, used as an intro for congregational singing or as an interlude in a Luther church service.
variation form
form that presents an uninterrupted series of variants; theme may be a melody, a bass line, a harmonic plan, or other musical subject
variations over a basso continuo
variations over a repeated bass line or harmonic progression; in triple meter
imitative piece for keyboard or ensemble in several contrasting sections, played either as chamber music or in church. Markedly rhythmic themes; more lively than ricerecares
french overture
2 sections, each plaued twice. First: homophonic and majestic, marked by dotted rhythms and figures rushing toward the downbeats. The second section is faster and begins with a semblance of fugal imitation, sometimes returning at the end to the tempo and figuration of the first section.
moderately fast 4/4, beginning on upbeat; all voices participate in almost continuous movement
a dance in a moderate triple or compound meter; french for “flowing”
slow, dignified dance in triple meter, with an emphasis on the 2nd beat
a movement in fast compound meter, such as 6/4 or 12/8, with continuous lively triplets. Often begins fugally.
an elegant dance in moderate triple meter
Mannheim School
Composer, Stammitz: 1750s
Milan School
Sammartini (only strings); wrote in 1760s
early leader for oratorios in Italy; 1650s
concerto grosso
instrumental work that exploits the contrast in sonority between a small ensemble of small instruments and a large ensemble
binary form
AABB, in which the first section usually ends on the dominant or the relative major, although it may end in the tonic or another key; the second section returns to the tonic
rounded binary form
binary form in which the latter part of the first section returns at the end of the seciton, but in the tonic
Domenico Scarlatti
technically not galant; lots of figuration
da capo aria
two sections, an ABA form. First section is repeated after the 2nd section’s close.
Sturm und drang
Agitation, counterpoint, chromaticism, dramatic surprises; quick changes of harmony
Style galant
freer, more song-like; homophonic; light accompaniment; simple harmony, frequent cadences, slow harmonic rhythm
the system, common since the late 17th century, by which a piece of music is organized around a tonic note, chord, and key, to which all the other notes and keys in the piece are subordinate.
trio sonata
a form for 2 melodic instruments and usually 2 basso continuo instruments; instrumental
J.S. Bach