leading musical style of late 1900’s in which materials are reduced to a minimum and procedures simplified so that what is going on in the music immediately apparent. Often characterized by a constant pulse and many repetitions of simple rhythmic, melodic, or harmonic patterns.
chords move in parallel motion.
Martha Graham
Choreographer. Appalachian Spring Ballet-Aaron Copland
A vocalstyle developed by Schoenberg in which the performer approximates the written pitches in the gliding tones of speech, while following the notated rhythm.
Russian Association for Proletariat Music
Aprroach to composition, pioneered by John Cage, in which the composer leaves certain aspects of music unspecified.
free jazz
experimental jazz style of 1960s by Coleman, using improv that disregards standard forms and conventions of jazz.
blue notes
slide of 3, 5, or 7 in blues and jazz.
song for the dead (victims of heroshima)
phase shift
Recorded tapes going in and out of sync in phases.
Dancer-Stravinsky Rite Of Spring Ballet
cross over
Laurie Anderson, crossover of performance art to music.
graphic notation
indicate register, timbre, and timing in general terms rather than specifying notes nad durations.
the arificail separation of form from content and the conferring on form or its individual elements of a self-sufficient and primary importance ot the detriment of content. NO CONTENT FOCUS. DOesn’t focus on melody.
French Serialism
strict control of pitches and rhythms in serial rows.
All notes are equal, not one tonic center.
musique concrete
Term from composers in Paris in 1940s for music composed by assembling and manipulating recorded sounds, working “concretely” with sound itself rather than with music noatation.
Timbral School
Threnody, 1960, Pendrcki. Thick and thin texture/tone clusters.
Nadia Boulanger
Teacher-Gospel of Stravinsky, Write in your own style.
William Grant Stil, Aaron Copland
Wagner used for dramatic work in which poetry, scene, staging, acting, and music work together toward one artistic expression. (Total artwork)
Symmetrical to center, Bartok and Stil (Sonata chiasma)
jazz “chorus”
repeated chorus-harm prog/pn comping, improvised over, has a head/riffs.
dislocated accent
Accent not on downbeat, Stravinsky.
concept art
cyclic melody
Folk melody, Hungarian-Bartok. Russians-Prokofiev, Shostakovich.
In Jazz, a new melody over a harm. progression borrowed from another song. Ellington-I Got Rhythm
Style of jazz in 1940’s with diversified rhythmic tezture, enriched harmonic vocab, and emph. on improv with rapid melodies and asymmentrical phrases.
employing the element of chance in the choice of tones, rests, durations, rhythms, dynamics, etc.
socialist realism
German music camp-Messiaen=teacher, boulez=student.
Hole pedal down so chords smear together, Impressionism-Debussy, Scriabin
Same forwards and backwards- Form of Crawfard-Seeger.
Vietnam War
Great Depression (Stil, Crawford Seeger, Varese)
P, R, I, RI
Row forms.
Craft. of Music Comp.
Afro-Am. vocal genre based on twelve-bar blues.
not subjective.
mixed meter
Stravinsky RIte of Spring Cubism.
New Wave
Laurie Anderson- Minimalism, angst/fear/disconnect.
technique in jazz in which the performer sings nonsense syllables to an improvised or composed melody
reference point
Procedure/Form. Varese-Siren/Stravinsky-chord/Debussy-Planing chords/???????????
All twelve notes sound before repeated.
Charles Ives, large, loud climaxes of sound.
Clear, but irrational images. Real things mutated. Melting Clocks, poetry in Boulez.
hot jazz
I Got Rhythm, Syncopation, blue notes.
Early 1900s term derived from art, in which music avoids all traditional forms of “beauty” on order to express deep personal feelings through exaggerated gestures, angular melodies, and extreme dissonance.
Art term used in music-Stravinsky Rite of Spring-reduced everything to basics (orch-perc. like) Blocks of sound juxtaposed and layered. Reference points as shapes.
Trend in late 1900s that blurs the boundaries btw high and populat art, and in which styles of all epochs and cultures are equally available for creating music.
Percussion Mvmt.
Cowell, Varese. Only percussion peice, piano as percussion.
“New Left”
variations over a repeated bass line or harmonic progression.
style of jazz originating in the 1930s that was characterized by large ensembles and hard-driving jazz rhythms.
Electronic instrument that generates and processes a wide variety of sounds.
modal cadence
Hindemith, Un Cygne.
Quotation School
Ives-pop. folk tunes, ????????
term for music since 1900s that establishes a sing pitch as a tonal center, but doesn’t follow the traditional rules of tonality.
reference pitch
Threnody, one pitch, go up and down from it. Graphic notation. Threnody, 1960, Penderecki.
Trend in music from 1910s-50s in which composers revived, imitated, or evoked the styles, genres, and forms of pre=romantic music, especially those of the 18th century.
Stravinsky connection.
performance art
Type of art that first came to prominence in 1960s, based on the idea that performing a prescribed action in a public place vonstitutes a work of art.
rotation method
Ruth Crawford-Seeger, rotated the pitch row.
2nd Viennese School
Schoenberg, Webern, Berg-Serialism/Atonal.
“soul music”
Afro-Am. pop music of 1960s that combined elements of Rhythm and Blues and gospel singing in songs on love, sex, and other secular subjects.