Congregational singing
-Reform of RC practice where only choir and clergy sing.
-Congregation sings chorales in unison
-Originally sung unison melodies (adaptations of GC, existing German devotional songs, contrafactum, and entirely new compositions)
-Secular song with new sacred words
Chorale Motet
-Chorale used as a cantus-firmus (sung by choir or in the home)
Metrical Psalm
Altered strophic and rhymed translation of psalms in the vernacular; monophonic
Anglican version of a motet
-Most widely printed secular music genre of 16th c.
-Through composed (new music for each line), and text painting dominates.
Versi Sciolti
Free verse most often associated with recitar cantando
-Italian homophonic song, strophic w/ simple harmonies.
-Usually multiple voices or one voice with instrument.
-8 syllable lines 12345678
-Arrangements of vocal pieces using tablature (notation of hand/finger placement)
Functional vs. Stylized dances
-Functional: ensemble dances; suitable for social dancing
-Stylized solo dances; enjoyment of players/listeners
-Style of dance music, three-part form (AABBCC)
-Stately, duple meter
-Three-part form
-Lively triple meter
Single-Impression printing
-After Petrucci
-Three steps in one (staff, notation and syllables)
-Cheaper, but not as elegant
Triple Impression printing
-Created by Ottaviano Petrucci (earliest to print w/ moveable type)
-Staff, then notation, then words (fairly expensive)
Cori Spezzati
-Placing choirs and/or instruments in different positions throughout an acoustical space
Seconda Prattica
-Polyphony in the chromatic and text-driven style of Gesualdo
Basso continuo
– Musical texture that features both the bass line and an improvised harmonic accompaniment
Accompanied solo singing
-Moving instrumental bass with lyrical singing in the vocal line
-Mixture of recit. and aria style
-Recit. + moving basses + minor passacaglia.
Recita Cantando
-Later called recitative, sung speech that imitates the inflections of spoken Italian
Instrumental refrain
Ritornello form
-Full orchestra plays ritornelli (thematically related passages; soloist plays episodes (virtuosic passages)
-R – E – R2 – E2 – R3 – E3 – R4 – E4 – R5 – E5 – R6
-Extended episodes of singing and dancing (Sometimes extraneous to the plot)
Trio sonata da camera/chiesa
-Sonata da camera (chamber) – instrumental dance suite
-Sonata da chiesa (church) – series of “abstract” movements used in liturgical settings
Solo concerto
Orchestra vs. soloist
Concerto Grosso
Orchestra vs. soloists
-Instrumental form for string instruments (1650-1730)
-Tempo designations serve as titles (e.g. “adagio,” allegro,” etc.)
-Arranged slow fast slow, often
Tragedie en musique
-Hybrid of drama, music, and ballet (sung in French)
-Sung in 5 acts (adaptations of classical mythology)
-Grand music to accompany the King entering the theatre
-Stately march with dotted rhythm; lively imitative section
-French recit. Simpler, measured, and more tuneful than Italian recit.
-Dramatic religious piece for singers and instrumentalists with narration and dialogue
Toccata –
-Sectional improvisatory piece for keyboard, each section based on a new motive
Basso ostinato
-Repeating the bass line of a popular dance, while the voices move freely above.
-Descending tetrachord (major =love, minor = pain and suffering)
secular composition for solo voice and BC with alternating sections of aria, arioso, and recitative
polyphonic piece for instruments