Belo Canto
(in arias)
1. melodic(less ornamental)
2. modeled for power of castrati
3. simpler harmony
4. recitative and aria seperated
a form of musical notation indicating instrument fingering rather than musical pitches.
Tragedie Lyrique
1) 5 acts with a prologue
2) French language poetry and text setting important (French recitative)
3) French overture
4) recitative, arioso, aria similar
5) shorter arias, narrower range, simple, song-like.
6) natural voices only, no castrati
7) 5-part strings with winds for orchestra
8) one written each year
9) conservative harmonically
10) Act finales with chorus and ballet, often in chaconne or passacaglia form
Italian Overture
Sinfoni, fast-slow-fast movements
typically a piece for keyboard instruments with alternating sections of rapid passagework and slower, more melodic passages.
Guerre des Bouuffons
“War of the Comics” competition between Italian style/music vs. French style/music.
Trio Sonata
written for two solo melodic instruments and basso continuo.
Opera comique
Italian word literally meaning all or together and is used as a musical term, for the whole orchestra as opposed to the soloist.
(German)song-like “arias”, simplicity.
Alberti or Murky bass accompaniment
A movement in 18th century thought dedicated to raising the level of general education by combating superstition and inherited prejudices, and by placing human betterment above preoccupation with the supernatural. the diffusion of culture was one of the main goals of enlightened thought. Rise of middle class amateur-level music making; public concerts. liebhaber
Empfindsamer Stil
Mid-18th century style associated with North Germany. Its aims were to achieve an intimate, sensitive and subjective expression; gentler tears of melancholy were one of its most desired responses. (sensibility, sentimental, ultrasensitive)
Alberti Bass
Broken chord or arpeggiated accompaniment.
Eighteenth-century genre of Italian comic opera, performed between acts of a serious opera or play.
Ballet d’action
ballet movement started by French choreographer Jean Georges Noverre in 1760. It involves expression of character and emotion through dancers’ bodies and faces, rather than through elaborate costumes and props. The movement began due to Noverre’s negative reaction to what he considered the dancers’ undue focus on technical expertise and neglect of the true purpose of ballet.
Song with German words, whether monophonic, polyphonic, of for voice with accompaniment; used especially for polyphonic songs in the Renaissance and songs for voice and piano in the 18th and 19th century
A vivacious dance-song imported from Latin America into Spain and then into Italy, popular during the 17th century
Opera ballet
a popular genre of French Baroque opera, contained more dance music than the tragedie and the plots were not necessarily derived from Classical mythology and even allowed for the comic elements
Song cycle in German
Dramatic concertato
(Italian, “seek out” or “to attempt”) 1. in the early to mid 16th century, a prelude in the style of an improvisation. 2. from the late 16th century on, an instrumental piece that treats one or more subject in imitation.
Number symbolism.
Singing School movement
Fuging Tunes
18th century American type of Psalm or Hymn tune that features a passage in free imitation, usually preceded and followed by homophonic sections.
In late 19th century and early 20th century America, a type of variety show including musical numbers, but without the common theme of a revue
type of musical theater that includes a variety of dances, songs, comedy, and other acts, often united by a common theme.
doctrine of the affections, The essential idea is that just one unified and “rationalized” Affekt should be aimed at by any single piece or movement of music, and that to attempt more was to risk confusion and disorder.
(Italian, “refrain”) In 16th century and 17th century vocal music, instrumental introduction or interlude between sung stanzas.
Recitativo accompagnato
(Italian name “recitativo”) a style of delivery in which a singer is allowed to adopt the rhythms of ordinary speech, accompanied by an orchestra.
French Overture
Type of overture used in Tragedie en Musique and other genres, that opens with a slow, homophonic, and majestic section, followed by a faster second section that begins with imitation.
Cantata da Camera
A musical setting of one of the biblical accounts of Jesus’ crucifixion, the most common type of Historia.
(Italian, “flight”) Composition or section of a composition in imitative texture that is based on a single subject and begins with successive statements of the subject in voices.
Sonata da camera
Baroque Sonata, usually a suite of stylized dances, scored for one or more treble instruments and continuo
Equal Temperament
a temperament in which the octave is divided into twelve equal semitones. This is the most commonly used tuning for Western music today.
(Italian, “full”) In a concerto or concerto grosso, designates the full orchestra. Also called tutti.
Ballad Opera
Genre of 18th century English comic play featuring songs in which new words are set to borrowed tunes.
a short song of simple character, without a second strain or any repetition of the air. It is now frequently applied to a simple melodious air, as distinguished from brilliant arias or recitatives, and often forms part of a large movement or scena in oratorio or opera.
Opera Buffa
(Italian, “comic opera”) 18th century genre of Italian comic opera, sung throughout.
Sturm and Drang
movement in German letters which reached its high point in the 1770s. its artistic aims were to frighten, stun, overcome with emotion
French music of the 18th c.(derived from decorative art). In painting, architecture, and other visual and decorative arts designation for an 18th c. in which light, ornate decoration, and emphasis on frivolous elegance and luxury replace the massive structures of the Baroque
Sonata form
1. melody more important
2. slow harmonic rhythm
3. periodic structure
4. differentiated rhythms/rhythmic variety