List some of the ways that Wagner influenced future composers and artists.
complex chromatic chords
evasion of resolutions
constant modulation
Discuss some of the Harmonic innovations of Wagner.
The Tristan Chord
The Ring Cycle
What are the four operas that make up the ring cycle?

How are they connected?

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Give a 1-2 sentence summary of the plot and the moral goal of the cycle.

Das Rheingold, Dei Walkurie, Siegfried, Gotterdamerong.
They are linked by a connecting story.
It stretches over a 4 night period and follows the characters and their lust for gold.
What are some of the changes that occured in music after 1850 in regards to the repertoire that was being performed?
They focused on “musical classics”
Older works grew
Interest in the music of the past grew.
Briefly describe the musical dispute that centralized Brahms and Wagner.
Absolute vs. Program Music
Classic vs. New
Both sides in the Brahms/Wagner dispute actually had similar goals. What were they?
Wanted linking with Beethovan and wanted to appeal to audiences.
Describe the relationship between Brahms and the Schumann family.
After Schumann’s suicide, Brahms took care of the family.
How is the German Requiem of Brahms different than a traditional Requiem?
No mention of Christ in the text
Intended for Concert perf. and is 7 min.
What are some of the general ways that nationalism was captured in 19th century music?
Patriotic subjects were chosen, use of folk songs or setting text in national language.
What are some of the specific sources that Russian artists turned to when they wished to express their nationalism?
Folk tales
Folk Songs
Folk dances
History of Russia
What were the major principals of the “Mighty Handful”?
Romantic style was favored
Advocated realism
Ignore other techniques and let composers have freedom
Discuss some of the innovative compositional practices of Scriabin.
Became interested in philosophers and then changed his style of composing.
Virtuoso violinist with exceptional technical skills. He was also skilled on the mandolin and guitar. Composed solos and chamber music for all three.
Niccolo Paganini
Born in Hungary and trained in Vienna. The most astounding piano virtuoso of his era. From a young age he sought to match the virtuosity of Paganini.
Franz Liszt
German opera composer and important figure in the 19th century culture. Brought German Romantic Opera to it’s peak.
Richard Wagner
Major figure in Italian opera after Donizetti.
Giuseppe Verdi
Born in Hamburg into a modest family; his father played horn and double bass. Leading German Composer of his time in all areas except opera.
Johannes Brahms
Late Romantic Composer, known for his symphonies and association with the Cecilian movement.
Anton Bruckner
First Russian composer to be recognized for a distinctly Russian style.
Mikhail Glinka
Developed from Pushkin’s play, based on the long held belief that he murdered his nephew who ws heir to the throne.
Boris Godunov
Born in the Russian Countryside, and trained at the New St. Petersberg Conservatory.
Wrote mostly for piano and was influenced by Chopin and Liszt. Developed a style that was not tonal, but used a chord or collection of notes that functioned as a reference point or tonic.
A virtuoso pianist, he wrote idiomatically and expressively for the piano. Also, wrote opera, chamber music, and sacred and secular choral works.
Sergei Rachmaninov