A Continental European style of polyphony in the early Renaissance in which two voices are written moving mostly in parallel 6ths and 8vas at the end of phrases while a third, unwritten voice is sing a parallel P4 below the upper voice.
A court that was offically part of France that became particulary successful in the the late 14th-15th c. Because of its affluence the court of Burgandy soon drew musicians and composers from all of Europe. The variety of musicians attracted to this court from all different backgrounds fused the different styles in Europe at the time to a more unified style of music.
consort song
A distinctively English genre written for voice accompanied by a consort of viols. Byrd was the master of the genre.
A group of English keyboard composers including William Byrd, John Bull and Orlando Gibbons
a light genre from the late 16th c. written homphonically with simple harmonies and evenly phrased sections intended for both singing and dancing
paraphrase/paraphrase Mass
a mass that is based on chant. Instead of using the chant as the cantus firmus, the melody quoted is used in all four parts. It uses a more imitative style of polyphony than early cantus firumus mass did. Josquin’s Missa Pange lingua is an example.
a metric rhymed strophic poem and a simple melody sung in unison originally. The chorale was used to foster participation of the congregation in worship. Chorale tunes originated from a variety of sources: chant, secular songs, exsisting sacred German songs, and newly composed melodies. Eventually these tunes would be harmonized to the standard 4-part homorhythmic form we know today.
pavane and galliard
A pair of dances–pavane slow and stately and galliard more lively popular in the mid 16th c. The galliard usually varied the theme introduced in the pavane
lute ayre
a solo song with accompaniment with much less text painting than madrigals. The lute accompaniments have a fair degree of rhythmic and melodic independence but were subservient to the vocal line
Syntagma Musicum
a treatise by Praetorius which describes instruments of the time with accompanying wood cuts
Musica Transalpina
An anthology of Italian madrigals translated into English
An aristocrat composer who dramatized poetry through contrasting diatonic and chromatic passages, dissonance and consonance, chordal and imitative, and slow and fast moving passages
An English instrumental ensemble consisting of 4-7 instruments usually of the same family.
an Italian genre of instrumental music stemming from intabulations of French chansons. They were highly imitative and consist of constrasting sections each with its own theme worked out in turn
An Italian poet whose poetry was often used in Italian madrigals. His poems were later esteemed as the ideal and studied and imitated. His attention to the number of syllables in each line, the vowels used, patterns of accents, and lengths of syllables inspired composers to awareness of such literary devices in their music.
Another English composer who brought the madrigal from Italy to England, writing an entire madrigal cycle in honor of Queen Elizabeth
arrangements of vocal pieces often written in tablature and played on the lute or harpsichord
Catholic composer in the early 16th c. Willaert was the director of music at St Mark’s in Venice. He was very taken with humanism and insisted the music be written to line up with the text. He was one of the first composers to demand the syllables line up with the note they were sung on.
Championed the stile moderno, considered the text to take precedence over musical considerations. He wrote only vocal and dramatic works. Major works include L’Orfeo, L’incoronazione di Poppea. He was the maestro of San Marco in Venice
collections of metrical songs used in Calvinist churches. These were the only congregational songs allowed in Calvinist churches as they are paraphrases of scripture.
Combining instruments and voices on various parts.
Due to the difficulty and expense of producing complete scores of works for every performer, composers would often only copy one part and put it in a single book. Thus several of these books would be needed to perform the entire piece. This allowed music to be distributed more cheaply putting music in the hands of the general populaec to some extent so that music could be more readibly used in social settings instead of just sacred or costly venues.
Early madrigal composer who blended homophony and imitations in his madrigals. Il bianco e dolce cigno is one of his most well known pieces.
Early music printer who was among the first to use moveable type to print music. He printed collections of what he deemed to be the best secular music of the time that could be easily performed in small venues
chorale motet
elaborate settings of chorales based on the Franco Flemish motet. Some treated the chorale as a cantus firmus, others in a more imitative polyphony
English composer who brought Italian vocal genres such as the madrigal, canzonetta, and balletta to England. He wrote a treatise aimed at the musical ameteurs explaining about music composition
English name for the harpsichord. Harpsichords had plucked strings, could control volume and even ad vibrato by adding different stops
Famous English composer in the early 15th century who wrote primarily sacred vocal works. His style is quite consonant, the voices usually stay together rhythmically and the voices are relatively equal in importance though often the top voice became a little more prominent. His works aided the acceptance and uses of the English style throughout the continent.
Famous English composer of lute songs, some of which were so well known in the continent they were arranged
Franco-Flemish composer who worked in Germany advocating emotional expression and text painting. He wrote both sacred and secular works and a master of almost every style prevalent at the time.
Academie de Poesie et Musique
French society who cultivated musique mesuree and advocating the union of poetry and music as the ancient Greeks did. Also interested in the idea of ethics and music in Greek philosophy
Genre borrowed by the English composer Thomas Morely from the Italians, simple vivacious songs with regular phrases and straight forward harmonies
16th C. Italian Madrigal
Genre of vocal music that became one of the most popular genres in the Renaissance. The emphasis on text painting in madrigals paved the way for opera. It can also be attributed to Italy’s rise to international importance in the musical world.
Musique mesuree
In an effort to revive ancient Greek music and practice French composers and poets imitated the Greek and Latin meters in their poetry using French which does not have the short and long vowels as the ancient languages do. The music assigned vowel durations roughly equating stressed syllables longer notes and unstressed shorter notes. This style did not catch on particularly well but introduced irregular rhythms to other French vocal music.
cyclic (cantus firmus) Mass
In an effort to unify the mass into a coherent work, 15th c composers would often mass each movement on the same cantus firmus. This type of mass rose to quick popularity as the use of the motet receded.
Italian composer who worked with St Mark’s Cathedral. He wrote a great deal of polychoral motets which led to experimenting with instrumental works with instruments divided into two sections. His Sacrae symphoniae were important forerunners of the concerto. It was the first instrumental ensemble piece to specify instruments
Late Renaissance madrigralist who took text painting to new extremes taking much of the poetry quite literally in musical depiction.
Leading Spanish composer of his time, very influenced by Palestrina but also uses homophony, shorter phrases, and more contrasting passages
Pope Marcellus Mass
Mass written by Palestrina which exemplifies his mastery of clarity of text, pleasing sonorities, and elegance.
Josquin des Pres
Most famous composer of the late 15th/early 16th century. Characteristics of his writing include the normal late 15th C style: clear phrasing, tonal organization and form, fluid and tuneful melodies, and transparent textures. Uncharacterstic of the time was Josquin’s tendency to use the music to depict mood and the use of text painting.
Most famous Frech composer of the 15th C. His music represents the international style of the mid 15th C. He worked in France and Italy.
movement in the Catholic church to address the criticisms of Calvin and Luther, emphasizing austerity and asecticism. Jesuits were among the leaders of the counter-reformation which eventually led to the Council of Trent
newly composed, improvisatory instrumental pieces used to fill time, introduce another piece, test the tuning, or for entertainment
newly composed, improvisatory instrumental pieces used to fill time, introduce another piece, test the tuning, or for entertainment. Developed later to a much more imitative piece eventually an extended fugal piece on a single subject
Notational system for the lute and other stringed instruments which indicated what string should be played and which fret to place the fingers on.
Renowned French composer who fused earlier styles of Du Fay with newer innovations such as longer melodies, greater equality of voices, increased use of imitation, and more frequent use of duple meter
Sacred music in the Anglican church corresponding the the Latin motet. Anthems are polyphonic works in English. They were often unaccompanied.
Council of Trent
The Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation which examined its doctrine and practices. Among these were discussions about music which resulted in the elimination of all tropes and all but four sequences. A statement was made that music should be not used in church “in which there is an intermingling of the lascivious or impure.” Some churches took this to mean all polyphony was to be removed which lead to the common belief that the Council of Trent decreed such measures.
cori spezzati
the divided choirs in polychoral music
The first collection of polyphonic music printed entirely from moveable type (a collection of 100 polyphonic songs)
The foremost sacred composer of the Renaissance. Palestrina wrote in the new styles–paraphrase mass, imitation mass, and free mass– and was able to address some of the concerns of these genres in his music producing a clarity of text, pure and pleasant harmonies which lined up with Willaert’s ideas on counterpoint. He became the model composer of the stil antico style looked upon by later composers with great reverence.
The Italian counterpart to the Spanish villancico the frottola was a four part strophic song set syllabically and homophonically with the melody in the upper voice. The lower parts were usually performed on instruments. The frottola was not a folk/popular song but mock-folk songs written for the courtly elite. Petrucci published 13 collections of frottola testifying to its vogue at the time.
The leading English Renaissance composer. Byrd was a Catholic but was under the protection of the crown. He wrote a great deal of sacred music for both Anglican and Catholic services. He was the first English composer to master the Continental imitative style.
de Rore
Willaert’s student and successor at St. Mark’s, de Rore was a leading madrigal composer of his time. His madrigals reflect an interest in both humanism and ancient Greek musical ideologies.