What is the Heiligenstadt Testament of Beethoven?
Last will and testament. He was considering suicide, but he fealt a calling to music.
What does Beethoven often replace the usual minuet with in his symphonies?
Did Beethoven compose any program music?
Pastoral is only semi-programmatic.
What form did Beethoven employ in the second movement of his Symphony No. 3 in Eb Maj?
March, Trio, March (ABA)
What is the title of Beethoven’s only opera?
What comparisons can be drawn between the “Eroica” symphony and Fidelio?
They are both large works that are heroic in nature.
How did Beethoven attempt to unify the movements of his Symphony No. 5 in C Minor?
Recurring themes
Know the nicknames for Beethoven’s symphonies numbers 3,5,6,9
3. Heroic
5. Fate
6. Pastoral
9. Choral
What is the meaning of the key c minor in Beethoven’s music? List two works in this key.
Tragedy. Pathetique and Symphony No. 5
What is unusual about the form employed in the finale of Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9?
It is a compound form that consists of a big sonata form containing Concerto, Rondo, Variation, and Fugue elements.
What poet provided the text for the last movement of the 9th symphony of Beethoven?
Friedrich Schiller
What city was the operatic capital of Europe during the early 19th Century?
Rescue operas were popular during the French Revolution. What are they?
sensational, spectacular, elaborate scenery, heroic theme
What Italian composer living in Paris in the early 19th century made significant contributions to opera, church music, and music education?
Luigi Cherubini (1760-1842)
What is Cherubini’s most suddessful opera? What is the genre?
Les deaux journees – Rescue opera
What are the trademarks of German romantic opera? Name th emost famous on of Carl Maria von Weber?
Der Freischutz (The Marksman) – Superb orchestration, literary writings, conducting from a podium with a baton
What is “grand opera”? Cite an example by Rossini
Huge crowd scenes, ballet, passionate stories. Guillaume Tel
How does Der Freishutz foreshadow the operas of Richard Wagner?
Use of recurring motives (first to coin “leitmotif”), Use of associative keys
What Romantic composer contributed over 600 Lieder to the art song literature?
Franz Schubert
What are two song cycles by Franz Schubert
Die schone Mullerin (1823) and Winterreise (1827)
What is the title of Schubert’s greatest art song?
What art song by Schubert later served as a theme for a set of variations in one movement of a chamber work by the composer?
Die Forelli (The Trout). String quintet in C major.
What is a Rossini crescendo?
Building drama by adding volume in addition to added instrumentation, pitch level, and faster rhythm
What comic opera is considered Rossini’s masterpiece?
The Barber of Seville (1816)
Name two 19th century oratorios by Mendelssohn?
Elijah and St. Paul
Name a large scale choral work by each of the following romantic composers: Berlioz, Verdi, Brahms
Berlioz: Damnation of Faust (Te Deum, En Fence duquiste)
Verdi: Requiem Mass
Brahms: Deutsch Requiem
What is the sicilian movement in 19th century church music?
Conservative style, acapella
What were the favorite solo instruments of 19th century?
Piano and violin
Who were the best composers of chamber music in the 19th century?
Schubert and Brahms
Who was the premier piano virtuoso of the 19th century? Who was his inspiration?
Liszt. Paganini.
What native polish composer of the 19th century was referred to as the “Poet of the Piano”, composing almost exclusively for the piano?
List 4 influences on Chopin’s style.
1.Fields (Nocturne)
2. Bach
3. Piano technology (pedals etc.)
4. Polish dances (Poloneise, Mazurka)
Who was the first composer to use the term Nocturne?
John Fields
What are the landscape symphonies of Mendelssohn?
Scottish (2)
Italian (4)
What composer is responsible for the revival of interest in the music of JS Bach, conducting the first performance of St. Mathews passion in over 100 years.
Felix Mendelssohn
List one song cycle by Robert Schumann
Dichterliebe (Poet’s love)
What 19th century composer served as the editor for the new Zeitschrift fur Musick (New Journal of Music)?
In what year did Schuman compose more than 100 art songs (his “Song Year”)
What two pen names used by Robert Schuman in the new journal of music were also titles of character pieces of Carnival (Op. 9)
Eusabius, Florestan
The 19th century opera comique by Bizet “Carmen” was an example of a romantic trend called Verismo, what does that mean?
What is an idea fixe?
A fixation, used to unify Symphonie Fantastique
What romantic composer wrote the first important treatise on the subject of orchestration?
What opera is considered Donizetti’s comic masterpiece?
Don Pasquale
Why was Wagner pre-disposed to interest in theatre?
His step-father, Ludwig Gayer, was an actor
Wagner was always in debt. Who squandered his countries money to support him?
King Ludwig II of Bevaria
7 reasons Wagner was influential…
1.Carried on tradition of German Romantic Opera
2. Created “music drama”
3. Created Gesamtkunstwerk
4. His music presented contreversial political, moral, philosophical, and music issues
5. Wagner tuba
6. Designed Festspielhaus
7. Broke down traditional harmony
What is music drama?
Continuous music thruout
What is Gesamtkunstwerk?
Universal Artwork…stories just as important as music, orchestra as important as singers
What is Festspielhaus
Wagner’s opera house
Where was parsifal first performed?
What is unusual about the libretto for the Ring Cycle?
Wagner wrote it himself
What does the key of Db mean in the Ring Cycle?
Wotan: Ultimate God (central key in the piece)
What forms are used in the ring cycle?
Binary (ABA) AAB (Bar form)
What was Giuseppi Verdi’s first opera?
Oberto (1839)
Which comic opera by Verdi was a dismal failure
King for a Day
Which Verdi opera stimulated a resurgance of creativity in the composer?
Who was Verdi’s favorite librettist?
Francesco Piave
6 Verdi opera traits…
1. Libretti w/ strong emotional settings
2. Patriotism
3. 4-fold format
4. Principle roles: Baritone, Lyric Tenor, Bass, and some form of Soprano
5. Recurring themes
6. Paved the way for realism
What are the four sacred pieces by Verdi and what is unusual about them?
Verdi was an atheist.
1. Missa del Requiem
2. Praises to the Virgin Mary
3. Stabat Mater
4. Te Deum
What books did Liszt write?
Chopin, Gypsy Music
6 influences on Liszt…
Father, Czerny, Saliari, Paganini, Berlioz, Gypsy music
What 3 terms were coined by Liszt?
Thematic Transformation, Tone Poem, Solo Recital
What is unusual about Liszt’s Sonata in B Minor?
Piano Sonatas were out of fashion
Name two Romantic German poets whose poetry was set to music by Lieder composers