Enlightenment (1730-1770)
A philosophical, scientific, and political movement that dominates eighteenth century thought.
Les Philosphes
28 vol. Encyclopedia of Music
Galant Style
Music that is graceful, light in texture, and symmetrical in melodic structure.
Prima Donna
“Leading lady” of the age.
Florid and ornamented style of writing for the soprano voice.
Comic Opera
Unpretentious musical theater style using comical characters, poking fun at everyday social issues, usually middle-class.
Ballad Opera (Ballad)
A comic opera using re-texted ballads and spoken dialogue rather than recitative.
Opera Buffa
“Buffoonish” music, comic opera usually between acts of an Opera Seria.
Musical diversion between the acts of an opera or play.
La Guaerre des Bouffons
“The War of the Buffoons,” coming from “clownish” in Opera Buffa.
Opera Comique
Similar to Opera Buffa, has characters from everyday; sing in a natural style.
Reform Opera
Combines French and Italian traditions; the French utilizing intense dramatic expression.
Obbligato Recitative
Accompanied Recitative; obligatory
Concert Spirituel
A public concert series to give public hearing to religious music.
Concert Symphony
3 or 4-movement instrumental piece of an orchestra.
“Playing the Flute” (1752)
A 300-page “treasure trove” of info about 18th-Century Performance Practices on flute.
Johann Quantz (1697-1773)
Great flautist; associated with ensembles in Dresden and Berlin
Antecedant Phrase
Phrase ending on the dominant.
Consequent Phrase
Music ending on tonic.
Mannheim Crescendo
Gradual increase from pp to ff with a repeating figure over pedal bass.
Mannheim Rocket
Triadic theme in rising arpeggios.
Alberti Bass
Pitches in a chord that alternate low-high-mid-high, low-high-mid-high, etc.
Instrument that is able to play soft and loud.
A smattering with a heavy downbeat with dissonant chords on Spanish Guitar
LH over RH to make 3-level texture.
“Quaking”; Perfect for expressing throbbing heart, panting breast, or quivering hand. (Ex: four staccato 8th notes with a slur above them)
Bach-Abel Concerts
Public Concert series in London
Square Piano
Similar shape to the virginal, strings ran perpendicular to the keys.
Grand Piano
Large piano, sturdy legs, strings at same angle as the keys.
Sonata Form
Intro, Expos, Recap.; Transitions in between the (usually 2) themes.
Transition or Bridge
Passage of modulation between tonic and the new key in a sonata.
The “tail” of a piece of music.
Lighter style of music; implied 5-movement format: fast minuet, trio/slow/minuet, and trio/fast.
Independent wind ensemble. Got its name from woodwinds in the late 18th-Century; they played only harmonies (“Harmoniemusik”)
Faustina Bourdoni
* Wife of Johann Hasse (1699-1783)
* Soprano Singer (Ital)
* Was often hired together, hus and wife
* Debut in Dresden, 1731, “Cleofide”, “Opera Seria”.
Pietro Metastio (1698-1782)
*Principal librettist for 18th-Century Opera Seria.
* Worked as a team
* Fashioned clearly-shaped drama and poetry.
Instrumental chamber music in 2, 3 or 4 movements for soloist or small ensemble.
“Little sonata”; easiest and shortest sonatas, big sale for middle-class ppl.
Term used interchangeably with “Divertimento” .. only Serenade implied music was appropriate for serenading a lady on her birthday or name day.
Esterhazy Family
The richest and most influential aristocrats of Hungary; Haydn’s employer
a viola da gamba-like instrument with six strings that the Esterhazy princes played, and Haydn wrote for them.
A triple-meter dance added at the end of a dance suite, in rounded-binary form
Minuet and Trio
Evolved from the minuet; more lightly scored than the minuet; also rounded-binary.
a concerto-like approach to writing a symphony where individual instruments emerge from the texture to function as soloists.
Hoboken (Hob.) Number
Anthony Hoboken, the man who cataloged Haydn’s music.
“Farewell” Symphony
Programmatic work; Prince Nokolaus stayed at Esterhaza longer than expected, so the musicians wanted to leave and see their families.
Sturm und Drang
“Storm and Stress” Small body of works written around 1770 marked by agitated, impassioned writing. Minor keys, angular themes, string tremolos, dyn shifts.
Bird Quartet
Composed by Haydn. Mimics the sound of birds chirping and pecking.
Emperor Quartet
A piece Haydn was commissioned to compose; Austrian’s
The Emperor’s Hymn
Written in honor of the reigning Austrian Emperor for his birthday.
Paris Symphonies
The six symphonies Haydn created, requested by Freemasons from Loge Olympique (a club)
London Symphonies
Set of 12 symphonies Haydn wrote for Saloman of London who offered Haydn a new contract after Esterhazy died.
“Surprise” Symphony
Haydn’s No. 94 in which a thunderous, hammered fortissimo chord explodes from the orchestra in a soft section to wake sleepers.
The Creation
A sacred oratorio composed as a impression of Handel’s oratorios in Westminster.; built in a similar fashion to Handel’s “Messiah”