How does the first movement of Beethoven’s String Quartet in B-flat major, Op. 130 represent the increasing complexity of Beethoven’s late style?
The music is full of unexpected starts and stops. It appears to e a slow intro, and modulates to the bVI instead of dominant. among the most challenging works he ever wrote, for performers and listeners.
What is a Lied, what kind of text does it use, where would it be performed in the early nineteenth century, and what kind of forms does it use?
Lied is a german song from the 19c. It uses German poetry. it was primarily performed at the home. it was a domestic genre. the three forms used were strphic, modiefied strophic or through composed.
What was The Mighty Five and how does Mussorgsky’s V chetyryokh stenakh represent their musical goals?
The Might Five were self taught, nationalistic Russian composers. they often incorporated folklike elements into their songs. illustrates precense of chromaticism. also shows Mussorgsky’s penchant for naturalistic kind of declamation with his dark and brooding texts.
What is a character piece? Describe at least three examples of character pieces by three different composers.
A character piece is a new genre associated with the piano is the instrumental counterpart to the Song. Chopin’s Mazurka is one modeled after a particular dance, a polish peasant dance. Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel wrotePiano Trio in D Minor, with the third movement labled Lied or a song without words. Schumann’s Carnaval is a cycle of character pieces.
What were the main types of solo piano music composed by Frederic Chopin?
The bulk of his output consists of solo piano works. These include his mazurkas and preludes. Noctures were night pieces with no form and homophonic texture. His etudes reflect his devotion to strict technique. Polonaises were a version of a polish dance. Waltzes were stylized piece not meant for dancing. Also did sonatas, ballades, scherzos.
What is unusual about the harmony, form, and performance practices of Chopin’s Mazurka Op. 17, No. 4.
the work is harmonically ambiguous in many ways. opens iwith three three note chords that dont follow a harmonic progression. allowed for rhythmic freedom in performance. made use of tempo rubato or robbed time. dance in triple meter with emphasis on second or thurd beat.
How does Schumann’s Carnaval, Op. 9 combine programmatic with autobiographical elements; give specific examples.
it is autobiographical. he uses music to mask things he wouldn’t otherwise have said. One movement is named Chiarina, naickname of Clara, other was Estrealla, his fiances nickname. Estrella is play with affection and Chiarina is played passionately. those movements are separated by Chopin, dedicated to the composer. linked by a common theme of Carnival, brief season before Lent. entire cycle is based on a riddle.
What is a concert etude and who were its main creators in the nineteenth century?
the etude became a public genre, to be performed outside the practice studioand a lot of the piece show an increasing tendency toward musical showmanship. Paganini’s Caprices, and Gottschalk’s The Banjo are notable pieces. Liszt and Schumann used Paganini’s piece. Franz Liszt also did a lot in this genre.
What is bel canto and how is it represented in Rossini’s The Barber of Seville?
bel canto is a style of Italian opera that means beautiful singing. it refers to a vocal technique that emphasizes lyrical melodic lines, legato phrasing and seemingly effortless vocal technique. Rossini integrates opera buffa with bel canto.
How does Rosina’s cavatina “Una voce poco fa” represent a double aria? Make sure to discuss both text and music?
It consists of two sections, a slow opening and a lively conclusion known as the cabaletta.Rosina sings while writing a letter, she chooses her suitor and she professes to be respectful and obedient. The music gives lie to this claim, changing from reserved to lively in the cabaletta. The music, not the words, represent the true character.
How does the Act III duet from Verdi’s La Traviata represent a typical Italian opera scene complex?
It follows the typical structure with setting the scene in a recitative like passage. Then there is an opening section with impassioned dialogue. There is a cantabile which is a slow lyrical section with calm emotions. The tempo di mezzo is the middle section, and Bioletta collapses. in the cabeletta, the music gets fast and the main character dies.
What were the characteristics of French grand opera (name at least 5), who was the main composer?
French grand opera usually had historical subjects like the Huguenotes, five acts, spectacular stage sets, ballet numbers, and large crowd scenes (with a chorus). The main composer was Giacomno Myerbeer, whose biggest hit was Robert the Devil.
How did the tradition of French grand opera influence operatic developments in other European countries? How does the Coronation Scene from Mussorgsky’s Boris Godunov incorporate elements of grand opera?
Grand Opera influenced operas across Europe, like Wagner in Germany, Verdi in Italy, and Mussorgsky in Italy. These composers still had them sung in French, though. Boris Godunov was very much in the GO tradition, but it incorporated some russian nationalism into it.
How did the libretti and music of German romantic operas differ from contemporaneous French and Italian operas?
Wagner rejected traditional opera because the libretto, the drama, served as little more than a pretext for the music, and the virtuosic singing. Wagner thought traditional opera suffered a fatal flaw, neither its text or music could stand on its own. He maintained that the challenge was to integrade drama and music that would work to the advantage of both.
How does the Wolf’s Glen Scene from Weber’s Der Freischutz represent important features of German romantic opera?
The Wolf’s Glen Scene used an electrifyng combo of music and special effects like an offstage chorus and shadowy figures and a buring wagon wheel. The use of spoken dialogue accompanied by the orchestra was known as melodrama. It also used diminished sevenths played on low tremolo strings.
What are “music drama” and “Gesamtkunstwerk”? Who coined these terms and how are they represented in specific musical works?
Music Drama is a new genre similar to opera created by Wagner. Gesamtkunstwerk means “synthesized/unified art work.” based on three german words. synthesised all the arts. An example of a music drama is tristan and isolde. He used leitmotivs connected to a person or idea to lead us throught hte play with music.
What is unusual/interesting about the harmonic and melodic procedures in the Prelude to Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde?
It feautres a network of Leitmotivs. they have a one to one relationship with corresponding onstage actions. He uses the Tristan Chord in the prelude to show a sense of longing with its dissonace. it lacks harmonic resolution. Wagner goes on to fragment, extend and transpose this basic idea many times.
How does the duet for Tristan and Isolde from Act II of Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde differ from the duet for Violetta and Alfredo from Verdi’s La traviata? How do these differences relate to Wagner’s theories of opera reform?
The duet uses the love potion motif and its transformations. it has a fluid style with no recitatives for arias. it has a declamatory vocal style. the duet in La Traviata uses a recitative and it follows a very distinct structure with a cabaletta. It relates because recitatives weren’t very musical and weren’t used in his opera, so the libretto could stand alone. the music incorporated more of the story and actually aided in telling the story with the leitmotif, so it could stand alone as well.
How does Offenbach’s Orphee aux enfers parody serious opera and contemporaneous French politicians?
This is an operetta which is a smaller scale opera with mixed spoken dialogue and sung numbers. It parodies serious opera and politics, featuring eurydice quite happy to be in Hades. it includes the famous can-can of the spirits.
What is the waltz? What is the musical structure of Strauss’s Blue Danube Waltz?
the waltz is one of hte most popular dances of the 19c. it was first socially acceptable dance that allowed partners to hold each other close. Blue Danube has an extended intro followed by a series of individual walzes, most in binary form with their own thematic ideas. called modular structure.
What are the main similarities and differences between Strauss’s waltzes and Sousa’s marches? Discuss both musical issues and social functions.
a march, like dance music, was written to coordinate physical music. Sousa often ended his marches without tonal closure. both are modular in structure. built on units of 4, 8, 16 or 32 counts.
Describe the career of Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky.
He didn’t enter music conservatory until age 21. resigned his teach post at Moscow Consercatory to compose. battled with homosexuality privately. reached fame and wealth by the time his patroness withdrew her support. briefly toured us and russia as a conductor. died from cholera after drinking contaminated water.
What is exoticism and how is it represented in the three dances from Tchaikovsky’s The Nutcracker in our anthology?
Musical exoticism is representation of non western people by european composers, sometimes negative stereotypes. Le cafe takes us to Arabia, Le the “Tea” takes us to China and “Trepak” characteristic russian dance. He uses exotic instruments and special ostinatos to characterize each dance. during age of imperialism.
How do Brahms’s First Symphony and the fourth movement of his Fourth Symphony incorporate the techniques of past musical styles with new symphonic procedures.
in his first symphony, he introduced a triumphant luyrical theme in the finale that seems very similar to Ode to Joy in Beethoven’s 9th. the inner movements seem almost like interludes to the outer movements. In the 4th symphony finale uses a structure of 30 variations, each 8 measures long. it follows tradition set down by Beethoven’s Eroica and Bach. the theme is based on bach’s ostinato theme. reminds world that ld forms are capable of rejuvination and search for new wihtout abandoning tradition. its harmony and orchestration is very progressive.
How does the second movement of Dvorak’s Ninth Symphony (“From the New World”) incorporates elements of exoticism, and of Czech and American nationalism?
its themes are supposedly based on native/african american musical idioms. he advocated american composers using folk songs of these people to wean them from european tradition. he used pentatonic scales for native amer melodies, principle theme of the largo. . the second mvt is a pastoral slow movement (largo). the opening engl hrn solo is largely pent.
Describe the cosmopolitan features of Gustav Mahler’s life and musical career.
he was torn between his jewish heritage and the catholic faith. as a jew he wouldn’ thave been able to serve as director of the Vienna Opera, so his conversion is questioned. his symphonies were perplecing, his 1st symphony uses a funeral march like Eroica, and uses Frere Jacques played in a minor key on string bass in the upper range. many criticised the funeral march for its jewish and eastern qualities.
How does the third movement of Mahler’s First Symphony incorporate contradictory elements and styles, how does it establish a sense of irony, and how does it represent typical features of Mahler’s orchestration.
he uses a funeral march, an ode to the Eroica symph. Butit kind of mocks the somber tone of the original. the melody is playing in the extreme upper range of a double bass, which happens to be a minor Frere Jacques. the somber tread of the timapani and slow tempo and low register suggest funeral march, only to hear a minor children’s song. irony. many criticised the jewish or easter qualities for the passage after the march for the oompah sound. dismissed as music of the peasants, not for a symphony. uses low strings, bass druma nd cympols for the bass oompah.