T: Symphony No. 6 in D major
(“Le Matin” = “Morning”)
– Perhaps named by Paul Anton b/c slow introduction evokes sunrise (how?)
N: Austrian
G: Symphony
D: 1761
*Early Esterhazy Years (*=extra credit on exam 2)
SF: Slow introduction
– Sonata form ( also recap omits much of theme 2)
– uses concertante instruments (more soloist roles with instruments in symphony)
T: Symphony no. 45 in F# minor (“Farewell”)
C: Haydn
G: Symphony
N: Austrian
D: 1772 EC: Early Esterhazy Years
SF: 1st movement = Sturm und Drang style
– repeated notes, abrupt stops, minor key, unison themes.
4th movement illustrates FJH’s famous wit: parts drop out, musicians leave
– this is a joke to tell the Esterhaza establishment to disband and go back to Vienna.
Time sig: 3/4
T: Symphony No. 92 in G major (“Oxford”) (2nd movement)
G: Symphony
N: Austrian
D: 1788
EC: Middle Esterhazy years*
2nd movement: See handout on SONATA CYCLE
SF: Form = ABA’ + Coda
A in D Major (V of symphony as a whole) , lyrical
B in D minor (parallel minor of movement) repeated notes sudden dynamics
A’ = A varied and shortened
– Rich orchestration (wind solos) (wind play by themselves w/o strings sometimes)
– How does ending reflect FJH’s famous wit?
EXAMPLE: (last Haydn symphony)
T: Symphony No. 104 in D major (“London”)
T: Symphony No. 104 in D major (“London”)
G, C, N = same as others D: 1795 *EC: Post Esterhazy years
– Finale’s Sonata form is MONOTHEMATIC =
Based on 1 theme which is presented in tonic as theme and in the dominant as theme 2 (Sub)
– Imitation of bagpipe w/ pedal point, “fiddling” (fiddler plays while bagpipe drones)
– later oboe would take over the bagpipe
– Long, dramatic coda (Skips the second statement of theme 2 in the recap so the coda can be longer)
T: String Quartet in E-Flat major, Op. 33 no. 2 (“joke”)
G: String Quartet
N: Austrian
D: 1779, Middle Esterhazy Years
SF: Finale in sonata-rondo form (new for FJH Quartets): ABACA (I-IV-I-I-I)
– Makes it sonata-rondo because there is a development in the rondo
– both the B and the C portions are in development style
– Rondo theme (refrain) is in ROUNDED BINARY Form
– “Joke” = pauses, play on antecedent – consequent convention (he sets it up to where we don’t really know where they are)
T: String Quartet in C major, Op. 76, no. 3(“Emperor Quartet”)
C: Haydn
N: Austrian
D: 1797, Post-Esterhazy years
SF: 2nd movement = set of variations on tune that FJH composed to honor Emperor Franz II; (emperor of all of Austrian empire)
– tune later used as Protestant hymn, national anthem of Austria, then Germany later
– Each instrument takes turn w/ theme.
T: Sonata No. 52 in E-Flat major, H. XVI: 62
G: Sonata
N: Austrian
D: pub. 1800 (post-Esterhazy years)*
SF: exploits dynamics of fortepiano
– monothematic sonata form
T: The Creation
G: Oratorio
C: FJH N: Austrian D: 1798, Post-Esterhazy
SF: Slow overture = The Representation of Choas
Very chromatic, remotes modulations
Dissonance resolved irregularly
Recitative for Raphael(arc angel; narrates the story of Genesis) & Chorus (Genesis):
– In the beginning.. and there was light (C major CHORD)
– 1st score published with bilingual libretto
T: Variations on “Ah, vous dirai-je, maman” [Ah, I told you, mother]
G: THEME & Variations
N: German
D: 1778, *Salzburg Years (will be two periods)
SF: Based on “Familiar French Folk Tune”
– Form of theme is Rounded binary
– one variation is in minor
– one variation is slow
Typical of T&V genre
T: Symphony no. 25 in G minor, K. 183. (“Little”)
D: 1773 Salzburg Years*
G: Symphony
SF: Sturm und drang style
minor key, abrupt stops, repeated notes, remote modulations
T: Symphony no 41 in C major (“Jupiter”) (last movement)
G: Symphony
D: 1788, Vienna years**
SF: Sonata form, but w/ 5 themes
2 themes in PT (principal)
1 in transition.
2 in Subordinate (described in Textbook, pp. 426-27)
– Complex counterpoint
– Development section: inversion (taking top voices and switching them w/ bottom voices), retrograde (backwards), stretto (quicker entrances of the subject, the rate at which the voices come in is much faster).
– Coda: quintuple invertible counterpoint
– all 5 themes combined, each acts as bass
– “Festive” symphony w/ trumpets, timpani
T: Piano Concerto no . 23 in A major, K. 488
G: concerto
N: German
D: 1786, Vienna years*
– other generic features as above in notes
+ Rich woodwind writing as in WAM symphonies
– alberti bass, common classical keyboard figuration
– Chordal patern sustain harmonies to support melody (Gallant style texture)
– Named for Domenico Alberti (1710-1740) among 1st to develop this texture in sonatas
– didn’t invent it
– written for WAM student, Barbara Ployer
T: Don Giovanni
G: drama giocoso C: WAM N: GERMAN
D: 1786 , Vienna years***
SF: WAM’s music differentiates characters, each has own style
– Servant to DG, Leporello: Basso buffo, patter style (rondo-like aria)
– Donna(lady) Anna (aristocratic soprano), opera seria style
– Don Giovanni (baritone, scoundrel) adapts to circumstances, musical style changes
– Commendatore (Anna’s father, bass) style is heavier, more sustained (stentorian tones)
– All 4 characters interact in an ENSEMBLE, a section of an opera involving multiple characters, each reacting to a situation
T: Die Zauberflote [The Magic Flute]
G: Singspiel
N: German
D: 1791, Vienna yrs.*
SF: Libretto by Emmanuel Schikaneder: actor, owner of small suburban theater, which Magic Flute saved from $$ problems by its popularity
– Schikaneder & WAM belonged to the same masonic lodge, so TMF includes symbols of Freemasony, e.g. 3
– 3 is an important symbol. TMF’s overture starts in Eb Major (3 flats)
– Remember Freemasons were secretive organization promoting democracy
– they didn’t address each other by names, had handshakes
– a lot of aristocrats belonged along with middle class
– upper classes are enlightened
– lower classes are simple, comic. E.g.
– Papageno (portrayed by Schikaneder) = the bird catcher
– Papageno wants to find a wife like himself
– Papageno’s music is therefore simple (Aria: Ein madchn oder Weibchen)
– Varied strophic form = each stanza’s music is slightly varied
– WAM played the “varied” Glockenspiel part
– Refrain precedes each stanza
T: Requiem, K. 626
G: Requiem mass
D: 1791, Vienna years*

SF: Vivid contrasts of entire score exemplified in the “Confutatis” [Confounded], part of Dies irae [apocalyptic Day of Reckoning]
– Confounded = minor, low, melodic tritones
– Blessed = major, higher range, diatonic

T: Piano Trio in Eb major, Op. 1, no. 1
PT instrumentation?
– Piano, cello, violin
C: LvB
N: German
G: Piano trio
D: 1793-4, Early years*
SF: 1-3
1. instruments more equal than in earlier piano trios
– Violin & cello solos (more independence)
– Beethoven implied genre was worthy of concert rather than domestic performance
2. 4 movements (earlier Piano trios were 2/3)
– saying his PT’s should stand along side of other 4 movement works
– such as symphonies or string quartets
3. 3 movement no minuet & trio, but SCHEZRO (see FJH Op. 33), Became LvB’s trademark
T: Sonata in C minor, Op. 13 (Pathetique
G: Sonata
C: LvB
N: G
P: Early*, 1798
SF: 1st movement begins a SLOW introduction (unusual, didn’t happen in WAM or FJH)
– Fragmented, sudden contrasts, improvisatory
– Ensuing sonata form is mostly regular, BUT
1. slow intro returns twice, at beg. Of develop and at Coda
2. key of T2 is unstable, unusual (see score)
– Contrasts between slow intro & allegro =
Suffering vs. resistance to it or triumph over it
(pathetic coming from pathos)
– publisher subtitle referes to sympathy or compassion, strongly felt emotions, especially
– T: String Quartet in F major, op. 18 no. 1
– G: SQ
C: LvB
N: G
D: 1800 Early
SF: LvB follows sonata cycle
– But in the third movement is ABA, but not minuet and trio.
Is instead scherzo (A) and trio (B)
– Form of the scherzo is likewise traditional:
– rounded binary
– But second party is greatly expanded
Modulates to A-flat, long cadential extension
– Trio is likewise in rounded binaryform, but
1. second part includes music that sounds developmental (extra dvt= trait of LvB)
2. cadences A-flat (third below and above
T: Symphony No. 3 in E-Flat major, Op. 55 (“Eroica” = Heroic)
G: Symphony
C: LvB
D: 1802-5, Middle years***
– Erorica still follows sonata cycle, but is longer than any earlier symphony
– Each movement has “EXTRAMUSICAL ASSOCIATIONS,” Ema’s.
– refer to nonmusical subjects (heroism)
– First movement is a huge sonata form, likened to military battle
– 2nd movement = French military funeral march (memory…)
– 3rd movement scherzo thought to celebrate hero’s achievements
– 4th movement variations based on theme from LvB’s ballet, The Creatures of Prometheus
– in Greek mythology, Prometheus stole fire from Gods to give to mankind
– just as Napoleon intended to spread democracy.
– T: Piano Concerto no. 5 in E-Flat Major, Op. 73
G: Piano Concerto
C: LvB
N: German
D: 1809, middle*
SF: LvB establishes new relationship between piano & orchestra with:
1. Opening, improvisatory fantasia, which returns in recap.
2. Normal orchestral exposition, except T2 begins in parallel minor
3. Piano re-enters (chromatic scales) before orchestra resolves Vb9
4. Piano preserves fantasia quality in “strict” sections
5. Piano plays T2 in B minor (enharmonic b9)

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– Name = in 1809, Emperor’s family fled from Napoleon’s invading army
– Haydn had protection during his last year of his life
– When the family returned, LvB welcomed the Emperor’s son, Archduke Rudolf (his student & patron) by playing the concerto privately for him
– LvB also dedicated it to A. Rudolf
– 1st public performance given in Vienna, on Emperor’s birthday, played by Carl Czerny, pupil of LvB, composer of many etudes, teacher of Liszt.
– Many modern pianist trace their lineage to LvB.

T: Diabelli Variations
G: Theme & Variations
C: LvB N: G
D: 1828 (Published) Already died in 1827, Late*
SF: uses trivial waltz by Anton Diabelli, Viennese publisher and composer, who asked many composers to write 1 variation each on it. (planned to create anthology of many variations by different composers, etc. other people who contributed were Liszt and Schubert)

– LvB initially refused, calling waltz a Schusterfleck = a cobbler’s patch or hodgepodge
Then LvB wrote 33 variations on IT!

– Theme = trivial waltz
– Var. 1 = pompous march (LvB sarcastic)
– Var. 9 = minor, motivic foreshortening (motive is shortened, typical of LvB) (he will take a theme and gradually focus it in smaller portions)
– last 3 summarize 18th C.
– 31: Bach Aria
– 32: Handel Fugue
– 33: Mozart/Haydn minuet

T: Symphony no. 9 in D minor, op. 125 (“Choral”)
G Symphony C: LvB
N: G
D: Late 1812-1824
– 1st movement begins with “nebulous haze”: Tremolos, motives emerge gradually, then coalesce in big tutti statement (influenced Bruckner)
4th movement includes chorus & vocal soloists
– setting of An die Freude (To joy) an ode by Friedrich Schiller, 18th – Century poet & philosopher. (influenced Berlioz, Mendelssohn, Mahler et al.)
– a method of unifying sonata-cycle compositions whereby thematic material of one movement is restated (“recycled”) in other movements
– in finale, after “fright fanfare,” themes from earlier movement. Alternate with inst. Recitative.
– events are duplicated when voices enter =
– resembles double exposition form
– cyclical form important for nearly all romantic composers
T: String Quartet in C-sharp minor, Op. 131
C: LvB
D: 1826, Late
SF: 7 movements!! Of extreme contrast
1st movement: Fugue (!)
– Subject (melody of contrapuntal piece) stated by each instrument, in turn
– Fugues alternate between
– expositions (where subject is stated) and
– episodes (where modulations occur)
2nd movement
– very simple sonata form that uses one theme, first in tonic and then in secondary key (V/III or v) = monothematic
But key is D major (Neapolitan of C-Sharp minor) !!!