Style Gallant
french style…elegant
Emfindsamer Stil
German style…expressive
Collegium musicum (year)
1702, group of amateurs who gives concerts
necessary part
Variations…used in late renaissance and early baroque
Traite’ de l’harmonie (who, when, what)
Rameau, 1722, Treatise on Harmony, first treatise on functional harmony
BWV – bach works catalog
Jesu, Juva or Soli Deo Gloria
Equal temperament
tuning with 12 equidistant semitones
Cavatina (what and who)
short aria in simple style…Handel
Pio Ospedale della Pieta (what, where, who)
school for girls where instrumental flourished, Venice, Vivaldi
rapid singing of many sllables on one note…opera buffa style
Vivaldi (dates)
Hyppolyte et Aricie
Rameau (dates)
Gloria (who)
WTC Vol I and II
Bach (dates)
Coffee Cantata (who)
Passion According to St. Matthew (who)
Italian Concerto (who)
Rinaldo (who)
Handel (dates)
Water Music (who)
Music for the Royal Fireworks
The Harmonious Blacksmith
Four Seasons (who)
Castor et Pollux (who)
The Art of the Fugue (who)
“Christ lag in Todesbanden” (who)
Goldberg Variations (who)
Messiah (who)
Israel in Egypt (who
Twelve Method Sonatas (who)
Telemann (dates)
Brandenburg Concertos (who)
Musical Offering (who)
Jesu Meine Freude (who)
B Minor Mass (who)
Almira (who)
Te Deum (who)
Judas Maccabeus (who)
Saul (who)
What work by Vivaldi for violin and orchestra is an early example of program music?
Four Seasons
What works constitute Vivaldi’s greatest contribution to Baroque instrumental literature?
Discuss movements of Four Seasons
1. La Prima Versa (spring), E, bird song, bubbly

2. La Estate (summer) Bb, bird kuckoo and turtle doves

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3. L’Autunno (autumn) F, merry making at harvest, peaceful slumber

4. L’Inverno (winter) f, chattering teeth, shivering from snow…also sitting by fire and outdoor winter fun

Why was Vivaldi not old-fashioned?
Homophonic, slow harmonic rhythm, not baroque sounding
What prolific 18th century composer composed over 4000 works?
In what cities did Telemann work and what Bach job was originally offered to him?
Leipzig, Eisenach, Frankfurt, Hamburg; Leipzig Thomaskirche
What is the significance of Twelve Method Sonatas
teaches ornamentation
What are Telemann’s Major contributions
Music was made more accessible to amateurs by simplifying scores, had concerts with both sacred and secular music
What composer first acheived fame as a music theorist?
What is considered as Rameau’s operatic masterpiece? (what and when)
Castor et Pollux (1737)
What important concepts are presented by Rameau in his Treatise on Harmony?
1. Overtone Series
2. Chord is the most important elemant
3. Chord is identified by its root
4. Hierarchy of Chords
5. Chord’s function changes in modulation
What type of music did Bach write at his different jobs?
Arnstadt, Wiermar – Organ Music
Cothen – clavier, instrumental chamber music, cello suites, brandenburg concertos
For whom was Bach’s Music Offering composed?
Frederick the Great of Prussia
What work by JS Bach is a compendium of fugal composition for an unspecified instrument
Art of the Fugue
Cite works by Bach which demonstrate symbolism, throughness of approach
Symbolism: Cantata #4
Thoroughness: Jesu Meine Freude
What are the contents of each of the four Clavier-Ubung?
I. 6 partitas published seperately
II. Italian concerto and misc. smaller works
III.organ works with preludes, fugues, and chorale settings
IV. Goldberg variations for harpsichord (an aria with 30 variations – one of the best set of variations ever composed)
Who did Handel learn about Italian opera from?
What work by Handelhas a history of being performed for benevolent causes?
Who was Handel’s patron in Germany? In England?
Germany Georg Ludwig; England – Queen Anne
What composer is credited with composing the first English oratorios?
Who was one of the first composers to write music in all keys and why was this possible?
Bach – equal temperament tuning
What German-born composer became a naturalized British citizen?
Murky bass
keyboard accompaniment with broken octaves
alberti bass
keyboard accompaniment with broken chords
Sturm and Drang
storm and stress syle
Prima donna
leading soprano
Drama giocoso
a comic opera containing elements of tragedy but still humorous
rescue opera
a type of opera that relates the story of a person in peril of death who is saved through heroic endeavors
opera comique
french for comic opera
opera seria
tragic opera – 3 acts, based on historic figures, plot of choosing duty over love, secco recitative, arias where at the end reflecting on what just happened
a theme symbolizing a certain character, thing, place, idea, or state of mind…a unifying force in many german operas
cadence rhyme
using the same several measures to conclude different sections of a work
Da capo aria
ABA’ – last section was ornamentation of first section
Opera buffa
a comic opera with 2 acts – evolved from intermezzo
a short, through composed vocal solo, less elaborate than aria
ballad opera
spoken in prose interspersed with verses set to traditional tunes or popular melodies
vibrato for clavichord
crushed grace not – characteristic of Scarlatti’s sonatas
a section of indeterminate length with impression of stalling or waiting for the entrance of important material
Primo uomo
lead tenor in Italian opera
scenes in between acts of a tragic opera used for comic relief
Commedia dell’arte
group of stock characters, directly influences intermezzo
political satire song, used preexisting popular melody
german light opera, had spoken dialogue and strophic songs
Stylus mixtus
group of instruments which excludes trumpets and timpani
a strophic song usually recounting an ancient love story or a historic event of gallantry
What are some of the trademarks or ideals of the 18th century “Enlightenment” or “Age of Reason”
skepticism of the church, emphasis on knowledge
Name composers, statesmen, monarchs, and writers who were members of Freemasonry
Schiller, George Washington, Lessing, Swift, Klopstock, Goeth, Beaumarchais, Mozart, Hayden, Frederick the Great, Joseph II, Benjamin Franklin
Name several Enlightenment writers who affected public opinion and thought?
John Locke, Isaac Newton, David Hume, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Denis Diderot, Rousseau
Name several European and American cities which were among the first to offer public concerts int he 18th century
Frankfurt, Hamburg, Leipzig, Boston, Philadelphia, New York, Charleston
What is a Lombardic rhythm? Who liked to use it?
Scottish snap, short note on the beat, Francois Couperin
What is the significance of HC Koch’s Treatise on Composition?
first to describe sonata form thoroughly
What Italian composer made a significant contribution to early keyboard sonata? How many did he compose? Where did he work?
Scarlatti, 550-600, Spain/Iberia
What were the sequence of movements for the Pre-Classical concerto?
Fast, slow, fast
Which composer was the first to use piano for public performance?
J.C. Bach (london bach)
Name four composers of Pre-Classical keyboard concertos
W.F. Bach, J.C.F. Bach, J.C. Bach, C.P.E. Bach
Who was the most representative composer of Empfindsamer Stil?
CPE Bach
What work established CPE Bach’s fame?
Versuch uber die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen (essay on the true art of playing keyboard instruemnts)
What type of abuses in 18th century opera seria led to opera reform?
Da cappo aria, too much ornamentation
Who wrote Il teatro alla moda (The fashionable Theater) and what was its importance?
Benedetto Marcello, stated the state of opera of the time and its abuses and said it needed to fixed
Name the title and composer of the first important intermezzo
La Serva Padrona – Pergolesi
What “pamphlet war” was touched off by the performance of an Italian intermezzo in a French opera in paris?
The War of the Vuffoonists in August 1752
What was the 1st complete opera buffa to receive international acclaim?
Il Flosofo di Campagna (The Country philosopher), Baldassare Galuppi, 1754
What opera by Mozart represents perfection of drama giocoso?
Il Don Giovanni 1787
What is another name for Italian opera overture?
What forms did pre-classic symphony derive from?
trio sonata and baroque concerto
Who wrote the first symphony?
Pre-Classic Symphony gets its name and derives from what?
Italian opera overture
Who were the major composers of the Pre-Classic symphony?
Stamitz, Sammartini, CPE Bach