Name at least three differences between J. S. Bach’s “Variation 1” from the “Goldberg” Variations and J. C. Bach’s Sonata in D Major that reflect the distinctions between late-Baroque and Classical aesthetics.
In JS Bach’s Goldberg variations, the theme is in the bass and remains there in all variations. JC Bach’s Sonata in D has repeated figures in the lowest bass, not melody. JC’s repeated broken chords leads to a harmonic rhytm slower than JS bach’s music. His sonata also avoids the sequential repetition basic to his father’s music. JC’s piece features the Alberti bass and provides harmonic support for the melody.
How do the forms in Scarlatti’s Sonata in D Major and Stamitz’s Symphony in D Major differ from the forms of pieces composed later in the Classical period?
Scarlatti’s Sonata in D mixes elements of Baroque with Classical. The periodic phrase structure, slow harmonic rhythm, and transparent textures look forward, while the rituosic runs and sequential passages are more baroque. Stamitz’s Symphony in D Major features sequences with unexpected turns and abbreviated. It has a ritornello (baroque) with the opening theme and a 2nd theme occurs later suggesting sonata form. mixing again.
How does Stamitz’s Symphony in D Major represent an example of early symphony and of the Mannheim symphonic style?
Stamitz’s Symphony in D Major represents the Mannheim style with its extended crescendos in the opening, tremolos and advanced integration of wind and strings. Its an example of an early symphony with its mixture of ritornello and sonato form. though it more closely follows ritornello form, it can be analyzed as sonata form.
What was sentimentality and how is it reflected in C. P. E. Bach’s Fantasia in C Minor?
Sentimentality is musical compositions with abrupt changes and unexpected events. Keen awareness of and empathy of the experience of others. Reaction to rationalism. Bach’s Fantasia exemplifies this with long stretches without bar lines and rhytmic freedom. The notated meter in the opening seems irrelevent.
What are the differences between the first movements of J. C. Bach’s Piano Sonata in D Major and Joseph Haydn’s Piano Sonata in C Minor.
JC Bach’s piece is light textured and small in scale. It places limited technical demands on the performer. Haydn’s piece its longer, more varied muscially and meotionally and more demanding. Intended for the fortepiano rather than harsichord bc of rapid shifts between forte and piano. Harps or piano could be used in JC Bach’s piece.
How do the first and fourth movement of Haydn’s String Quartet in C Major, Op. 33, No. 2 exemplify typical features of Haydn’s style and the features of Classical string quartet in general?
The first movement illustrates characteristic textural richness of his quartets. He blended counterpoint and homophony. The fourth movement is a rondo and incorporates thematic material from the opening refrain within a contrasting episode. A and B are clearly distinct, but the return of the A theme but with manipulated harmonies and fragments. Many composers manipulated established conventions of the Classical era, never quite constrained by them.
How do Haydn’s symphonies reflect the development of the symphonic genre throughout the Classical period?
His symphonies reflect the size of orchestras in the 18th century. Early ones only feautred strings, two oboes, and bassons and flute. Later on horns became standards, as well as trumpets and timpani, but was relatively slow to accept clarinets. Only his last 4 had them.
What are musical topics and how are they used in compositions from the Classical period?
Topics are musical figures and styles, usually with multiple in each movement that provide contrast. An example is the unusal opening in Haydn’s Sympony No. 103. The opening drumroll prefigures many themes in the first movement.
Name at least five unusual/distinctive features of the first movement of Haydn’s ‘Drumroll’ symphony.
Featured a slow introduction after a surprising opening drumroll. The slow intro follows no established form. It shares important elements of the first movement. The drumroll prefigures all the themes in the first mvt that feature repeated notes.
How does the first movement of Mozart’s Piano Concerto in E-flat Major exemplify Classical concerto form? How does Mozart defy the formal conventions?
It is a variant of sonata form. Mozart’s piece is based on JC Bach’s Keyboard Sonata. He keeps it structurally the same until not modulating in the transition in measure 9. He defies formal conventions because his piece can also be analyzed in ritornello struture.
How do the music and the story Pergolesi’s La Serva Padrona represent typical conventions of the intermezzo genre?
Intermezzo is a work intended for performance between act of a larger serious opera. The work as a whole points toward the lighter style of the mid 18c, but also to a less monolthic approach to musical expression. The music style has lots of repetitive short phrases and lots of contrast and exaggerated word painting.
What are the main distinctions between opera buffa and opera seria?
Opera buffa is comic opera, its subject matter was humorous, not serious. The libretto centered on everyday characters, not heroes and gods. Singers included basses which weren’t in Seria, and no castrati. It gave more emphasies to ensemble singing and avoided da capo arias.
What was the War of the Buffoons and how did it reflect contemporary French politics?
Dispute ignited by Pergolesi’s La serva padrona. It was tragedie en musique supporters vs. opponents. Pitted partisans of King Louis XV against Queen Marie, french culture vs. italian. Louis supporters were conservative and Marie were progressive.
Who was the main proponent of the opera seria reform and how did his operas differ from earlier opere serie?
Christopher Willibald Gluck was the main reformer. He had an overture linked by themes or mood to following plot, little virtuosity and no more da capo arias, fluid style with no distinction between recit and aria and an emphasis on chorus. and accompanied recitative.
How does Scene 3 of Act II of Gluck’s Alceste represent typical features of a reformed serious opera?
He weaves together accompanied recit, chorus, aria and duet into a muscally continuous dramatic squence. Kind of follows da capo aria but the return is brief and virtuousity plays on role at all. The repetition simply reinforces the text.
What were the three genres of opera that Mozart excelled in? Name at least one Mozart example for each genre
Idomeneo is an example of reformed opera seria. Don Giovanni represents a mixture opera buff and seria styles. Singspiele was a german play with songs, an example is the Magic Flute.
How does Mozart combine seria and buffa elements in the opening scene of Don Giovanni?
Mozart uses the overture to set the tone for the opera as a whole with its juxtraposition.Opening aria is harmonically rhythmically and melodically simple. Jux of comedy and tragedy occurs wihtout warning. The opening monologue turns into a frantic duet.
How do the first two movements of Mozart’s Requiem exemplify typical features of eighteenth-century sacred music?
good example of synthesis of older and newer styles. The opening introit uses Handel’s Fineral Anthem for Queen Carline. H eeven uses Gregorian Chant. it moves in to the Kyrie without pause.
Why did instrumental music suddenly acquire a lot of prestige in the early 19th century?
The new Romanticism era looked down on words, and many though music should not descend to the level of words. Closely linked with idealism, styem of thought based on premise that objects o in the physical worldare a relfection of ideas in mind. if music is to closely united with words, striving to speak a lnaguage not its own.
The nineteenth-century cult of originality influenced composers in two contradictory ways, what were they?
Critics began to condemn any work that resembled any other work. This made composers more aware of the musical past. This lead to historicism, where composers openly embrased forms and styles of earlier gens while presenting them in orig ways.
Briefly characterize the three periods of Beethoven’s compositional career.
The early period saw Beethoven modeling after Mozart and Haydn, but his pieces were hardly imitations. They are original. Wrote the Heiligenstadt Testament to his brothers about his deafness. The middle period is often called the heroic period because of its feeling of struggle and triumph. Wrote the Immortal Beloved Letter about his personal and creative crisis. Late period showed his music becoming more introspective
Discuss at least five unusual/revolutionary features of the first movement of Beethoven’s Eroica Symphony.
It has 691 measures, unusually long. The main theme is flawed with C#s in Eb Major. It features long transitions with mini themes and a new theme in the development in E minor. There’s a premature horn call.
In what ways does Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique continue trends started by Beethoven, and how does Berlioz depart from Beethoven models?
Continues the trend of program music, with a program of his own creation, but it has no traditional form. It uses extended techniques. Expaneded the sound of the orchestra.
What is the program of the fifth movement of Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique and how is it represented in the music? What is the idee fixe?
Dream of a Witches’ Sabbath.He combines with dance and the Dies irae. The dies irae is a chant sung during Mass for the Dead. The idee fixe is the the theme associated with the beloved
How does Mendelssohn’s Overture to Midsummer Night’s Dream exemplify typical features of early nineteenth-century concert overtures?
Treated with more presige. Programmatic music, but not written down like Berlioz. Multiple themes representing the play’s characters.