Baroque Period Dates
a king enjoyed absolute power by divine right. Most music was commissioned for and praised royalty on a collassal scale
Doctrine of Affections
music had the power to move the soul. created by monteverdi and co.
principle composers of opera in early baroque
Jacopo Peri, Claudio Monteverdi, (Giulio Caccini?)
Jacopo Peri
1561-1633; Florence, Dafne (1598), Euridice (1600), stile rappresentativo, 1st true opera
1598. Jacopo Peri. 1st true opera only fragments survive. Florence
Euridice (1)
1600. Jacopo Peri. premier-wedding of medici princes to Henry IV in Pitti Palace for 200 special aristocrats. short chamber opera in 5 scenes.
Giulio Caccini
1551-1618; Florence, Euridici (1601), Le nuove musiche (1602), description of vocal ornaments and 1st to write them in score, (ie: trillo and gruppo)
Le nuove musiche
1602. Caccini. describes various types of embellishment, to move the affections of the soul. anthology of solo madrigals and solo stropic songs
Claudio Monteverdi
1567-1643. Mantua. Orfeo (1607), Arianna (1608). Venice: Il ritorno d’Ulisse in patria (1640), Le nozze d’Enea (1641), L’incoronazione di Poppea (1642). variety of instruments, different styles of monody,
1607. Claudio Monteverdi. Libretto by Alessandro Striggio. Orfeo role created by Francesco Rasi/Caccini’s student, intended as chamber opera for small elite audience of leading ladies of the city by the duke Gesualdo. but became 200 aristocrats crowded into a room in the ducal palace in Mantua. 5 acts/90 minutes
L’incoronazione di Poppea
1642. Claudio Monteverdi. celebrates vices of ruling class. prologue and 3 acts. created for carnival season
centers of early Opera
Venice, Mantua, Florence
Aria vs. Recitative
recitative is more rhythmic and defined as musically heightened speech, with rapidly repeating notes followed by one or more longer notes at the ends of phrases. aria is more florid, more expancsive and more melodious than a recitative. it is a short poem made of stanzas and may repeat words for emphasis. finally it is often accompanied by more than basso continuo.
Florentine Camerata
a group of prominent Florentines that gathered at the home of Count Giovanni Bari’s to discuss literature, sciene and the arts. Text scholar: Girolamo Mei, musician scientist: Vincenzo Galilei, and collegues
Giovanni Gabrieli
1554-1612. Venice, St. Mark’s. studied with Lassus in munich, inspired by Doge’s windband in venice. suceeded by monteverdi. schooled shutz. dynamic levels in the score, writing for specific instruments, and the term “sonata”. associated w/ concerted motet. Sacrae Symphoniae-in ecclesiis (I 1597, II 1615)
In ecclesiis
1612. from Sacred Symphonies (1615)concerted motet, concertato style, specified instrumentation, cori spezzati, stille concertato, 3 choirs and basso continuo. Latin, in Venice.
concerted motet
a motet on grand scale with strong contrast (b/w soloist and choir, instrumentalist and choir etc),
concerted motet vs. concerted madrigal
sacred vs. secular
Heinrich Shutz
1585-1672. Dresden, Germany, two years tuition w/ gabrieli. studied in Venice with Monteverdi Kapellmeister at court. Psalmn Davids (1619), Symphoniae sacre Part 1 (1629), Kleine geistlichee Konzerte (1639 and 1641), Symphoniae Sacrae Parts II and III(1647 adn 1650)(ex: Saul, Saul, was verfolgst du mich? Part III). 1st to write German Opera Dafne (1627-now lost). composed almost exclusively for vocal. ( Motets)
Three types of Sacred Music in Early Baroque Rome
1. Stile antico
2. “the colossal Baroque”
3. sacred operas, oratorios and cantatas
Girolamo Frescobaldi
1583-1643. Rome. Organ composer, primarily organist at St. Perer’s Basilica. improvised music ie: toccatas, ricercars, and canzonas, organ masses. Alternatum technique. Mass for Sundays-Fiori musicali (1635)
“ordinary” and “proper” of Catholic Mass
Ordinary was the parts of the mass that were always the same (Kyria, Gloria, Credo, Sactus and Agnus Dei) Proper of the mass changes with the litergical season and for special occasions (Introit, Gradual, Alleluia or Tract, Sequence, Offeratory, Communion)
primary genre of vocal chamber music. “something sung”. several movements with arias and recit sacred or secular. Barbra Strozzi,
genre of religious music developed to satisfy the desire for dramatic music during lent. musical setting of dramatic latin or italian texts that usually elaborate on the old testament. essential processes of opera minus sets, costumes and acting.
cantata composers
Barbra Strozzi: L’amante Segreto: Voglio morire, Alessandro Scarlatti: Oh di Betlemme
oratorio composers
giacomo carissimi: Jephte
Oratorio vs. Cantata
both can be on sacred topics, both have instrumental accompaniment, both have recit and aria,
cantata is for solo voice oratorio is for solo and choir. cantata was much shorter (15-20 mins vs. over an hour)and had Less accompaniment, cantatas were repeated multiple times in one sitting
Alessandro Scarlatti
1660-1725. Rome. 600 chamber cantatas: Oh di Betlemme (1700ish), da capo aria,
chamber cantata
performed for a select audience in a private residence, most were in italian and spoke of love, but some were on roman history and sacred subjects, repeated several times to allow the poetry and music to set in
da capo aria
an aria in two sections w/ a return to and repeat of the 1st section (aba) reprise signaled by the inscription “da capo” meaning “take it from the top”
important centers of baroque string instruments
Northern Italy: Cremona, Bolgna, Brescia, Mantua
Important makers of baroque string instruments
Cremona: Antonio, Girolamo and Nicolo Amati, Pietro and Giuseppe Guarneria, Antonio Stradivari
solo and trio sonatas
for violin(s) and basso continuo (2 players). so 3 players in solo sonata and 4 in trio sonata
“something sounded”. a multi movement work for solo instrument or ensemble. (slow/fast/slow)
sonata da camera vs da chiesa
chamber (movements named for dances), church (movemeents named for tempo/quality markings)
Arcangelo Corelli
1653-1713. studied in Bologna, centered out of rome. violin vituoso. composer of 72 trio/solo sonatas, concertos and ONLY instrumental music. standardizing sonatas as solo or trio. use of multiple stops. binary form. impressing a four-mvmnt format, solidifying tonal harmony: circle of fifths. Opus 1 (1681),Opus 4 (1694) (and Opus’ 2,3,5, 6)
Opus 4
1694. Arcangelo Corelli. set of 12 trio sonate da camera dedicated gto Cardinal Ottoboni (patron)
multiple stops
two or more strings are depressed and bowed/plucked simultaneously w/o string change. creates “chord”
Giuseppe Torelli
1658-1709. Bologna at St. Petronio’s. a violinist composing for trumpeters. string concertos of 1692 specify that string parts are to be multiplied. 4 dozen sonatas/sinfonias/concertos for trumpet. movement for trumpet to rest. Trumpet Sinfonia in DMajor (1700)
George Fredrick Handel
1685-1759. menro Reinhard Keiser. left to work in London eventually for King George I (also german)
Handel and the Dance Suite Water Music
1717. to make england look good. F major featuring the horn. D major featuring trumpet. G major and minor for flute. super popular.
dance suite
established as important by johann froberger. for keyboard. an ordered set of dances for solo/ensemble written in the same key and performed in a single setting
dances in a dance suite
allemande, courante, sarabande and gigue. also minuet, bourree, gavotte, and hornpipe
structural elements of tradgedie lyrique
5 acts, mythological or chivalric topics to praise the king/court, french overature, recitatif ordinare and airs not virtuostic style of italians, female sopranos, chorus plays a role in choral-dance scenes, divertissements, lavis costumes and elaborate stage machinary.
lully and tragedie lyrique
created by fusing french tragedy and ballet de cour
machine plays
The term ‘machine play’ is given to a variety of works (tragedy, pastoral, etc.) in which the spectacular element predominates, usually with a strong admixture of music and dance
ballet de cour
a type of ballet danced at french court from late 16th to early 17th century in which members of the court appeared alongside proffesional dancers. spectacle
Lully (1686) the last of his 13 french operas for the king showing how he rejects the sorceress armide for duty. has french overature, recitatif, fem soprano
Cadmus et Hermione
lully. 1673. opera in 5 acts. praise to Louis.used to invent tradegie lyrique. comedy in servants.
Dido and Aenaes
1689. Henry Purcell’s ONLY fully sung opera. all female cast except 1 male. from virgil’s Aeneid. about 1 hr long with 3 acts. ground bass for Dido’s lament.
prima practica
a traditional style for church music that is contrast to the freer writing found in some madrigals of the late sixteenth century; th musical embodiment of the restrained spirit of the counter-reformation
Handel and Opera Seria Giulio Cesare 1724
famous virtuosos. da capo. fell out of favor b/c too expensive and competition with ballad opera
Handel and Oratorio Messia 1741
performed in Dublin, Ireland for a charity. three parts 1)prophecy and birth 2)crucifixion and decent 3)day judgement and eternal life. Hallelujah chorus. made a lot of dough
seconda practica
claudio Monteverdi’s term for the next text-driven approach to musical composition that he practiced; it allowed for “deviations” from conventional counterpoint if these moments were inspired by an especially expressive text
stile antico
the name given to the conservative music emanating from the papal chapel in the seventeeth century
stile moderno
seconda practica
the overarching term for solo madrigals, solo arias, and solo recitatives written during the early Baroque era.
basso continuo
bass line that provided a never-ending foundation, or “continuous bass” for the melody above; alos a small ensemble of usually two instruments that played this support
figured bass
a numerical shorthand placed with the bass line that tells the player which unwritten notes to fill in above the written bass note
stile rappresentativo
dramatic or theatre style. a type of vocal expression somewhere between song and declaimed speech
stile recitativo
a musically heightened speech, often used in an opera, oratorio, or cantata to report dramatic action and advance the plot
an instrumental piece, for keyboard or other instruments, requiring the performer to touch the instrument w/ great technical dexterity; designed to show off the creative spirit of the composer as well as the technical skill of the performer
text of opera/oratorio written in poetic vers
maestro di cappella
master of the chapel (choir) or private choir
expressive style of singing b/w recit and aria
cori spezzati
music for 2+ placed in diff parts of the building
stile concertato
a term broadly used to identify baroque music marked by grand scale and strong contrast in instrumentation/vocalization
an improv technique useed by church singers that originated in Spain and Italy around 1480; at first three voices chanted along with the psalm tone making simple chant sount more splendid; by the seventeenth century , spalm tone and improv were abandoned and it became a newly composed piece for four or five voiced but with the same simple chordal style
the continental style related to the english faburden; in fauxbourdon singers of sacred music improvised at pitches a fourth and a sixth below a given plainsong
organ mass
a mass in which an organ alternates with or entirely replaces the choir
a prayer hall set aside just for praying, preaching and devotional singing
French for ornaments or embellishments
air de cour
French term for a simple strophic song for a single voice or a small group of soloists
alternatim technique
a techniquein which the verses of a chant are assigned to alternating performing forces such as an organ and a choir
a christian society of laymen emphasizing relgious devotion and charity; in Florence performing laude was an essential part of their fraternal life
flat trumpet
a slide trumpet, but one for which the sliding tube extended bacward over th p[layer’s left shoulder rather than extending forward from th right; had the capacity to play in minor keys more easily
pastoral aria
a slow aria with several distinctive characteristics: parallel thirds that glide mainly in step-wise motion, a lilting rythm in compound meter, and a harmony that changes slowly and employs many subdominant chords
keyboard. Frescobaldi perfected a tightly organized, monothematic ricercar that influenced the later fugal writing of Bach
tuning a string instrument to something other than standard tuning
tourte bow
the newer curved bow so that violinists could play more easily
a technically demanding rhapsodic improvisatory passage for a solist near th end of a movement
an hour-long concert of sared music with arias and recits-something akin to a sacrd opera or oratorio; a singl religious theme unfolded in music over the course of five late-afternoon performances on the Sundays immediately before and during advent in the city of Lubeck, Germany
chorale fantasia
a lengthly composition for organ that takes a chorale tune as a point of departure but increasingly gives free rein to the composer’s imagination
chorale prelude
an ornamental setting of a pre-existing chorale tune intended to be played on the organ before the singing of the chorale by the full congregation
a lavishly choreographed diversionary interlude with occasional singing set within French ballet de cour or an “entertainment” in an opera or ballet only loosely connected to its surrounding scenes.
unmeasured prelude
an opening piece without specific indications for rhythmic duration or metrical organization
ground bass
english term for basso ostinato
an elaborate courtly entertainment using music, dance, and drama to portray an allegorical story that shed a favorable light on the royal family