Where does the word classic apply to? 
To the Mature styles of later 18th century composers such as Haydn and Mozart
    What was the Rococo period and when did it begin?

Originally described a style of Architecture that softened the heavier, more monimental anglar forms of the post-renaissance period with curved arabesques.

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It began in France 

  What was the French term galant used for? 

Galant was used in the 18th c. to describe the courtly manner in lit. and the subjects of paintings depicting courtly flirtation. A catch-word for everything that was considered modern, smart, chic, smooth, easy, and sophisticated.


The German word empfindsamkeit?
German word associated with the music of the mid 18th C. Derived from the verb to feel. A quality associated with the the restrained passion and meloncholy that typifies some slow movements and obbligato recitatives in particular
   What were some of the characteristics of the melody and harmony of this newer style?
By surprising turns of harmony, chromaticism, nervous rhythmic figures, and rhapsodically free, speechlike melody
5.    What is Alberti bass?  Who was it named after?

Named after Domenico Alberti.

this device broke each of the underlying chords into a simole pattern of short, repeating notes the produced a discreet chordal background, thereby setting off the melody to advantage. 

   What was the opera buffa?

A full length work with six or more singing characters and, unlike the comic opera in other countries, were sung throughout.

It served a moral purpose by caricatureing the foibles of boh aristocrats and commoners, vain ladies, miserly old men, awkward and clever servants, deceitful husbands and wives and many more 

    What was an intermezzo?
A short comic musical interludes between the acts of a serious opera or play. It contrasted sharply with the grand and heroic manners of the principle drama, sometimes even parodying it.
8.    Who was Giovanni Battista Pergolesi?  What was he known for?

An Early Master of the intermezzo.

Famous for La serva padrona 

    What was the French opera comique?
The Frech version of the opera buffa.
 What was the English ballad opera?  Which specific opera helped give this style popularity?

Satirizes the fashionable Italian Opera; its music consists for the most part of popular tunes, ballads, with a few numbers that parody familiar operatic airs.

The beggar’s opera is what gave this genre its popularity;

; What did the English ballad opera signal?

A general reaction in England against foreign opera. ;exotic and irrational entertainment;

-Dr. Samuel Johnson;

12.;; ;What was the German Singspiel?; In Northern Germany, what did the Singspiel turn into?

Translating or arranging French comic operas, for which the German composers provided new music in a familiar and appealing melodic vein.

N. Germany, it eventually merged with early 19th c. native opera.;

13.;; ;What was opera seria?;;
Based on Italian Librettos treating serious subjects and purged of comic scenes and characters.
14.;; ;Who was Christoph Willibald Gluck?; What is he known for?

French composer in the 17th C. composed arias in the conventional Italian Style, but was strongly affected by the reform movement. He wanted to remove the abuses that had deformed It. opera, and confine music to its proper function- to serve poetry and advance the plot.

Known for Orfeo ed Eurdice;

15.;; ;Who was Domenico Scarlatti?; Why is he important in the 18th century?
Chief Italian Keyboard composer of the 18th C. and a remarkable original artist. Experimented with hand crossing, wide leaps and repeated notes. Wrote most of his sonatas in Binary form
16.;; ;Whose names are associated with the Classical sonata?
Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven
17.;; ;What is the sonata form?; Describe in detail.
;; Sonata Form

o;;; Sonata Allegro form
;;;; First movement form
;;; ;;; Exposition
;;; ;; ;;; ; A(I) modulates B(V)
o;;; ;;; ;;; ; In minor, the B section is built on the III
;;;; ;;; ;; Theme A and Theme B
;;; Development
;;;; ;;; Original and newer themes
;;; ;; ; Trans. Back to I (Tonic)
;;; Recapitulation
;;; ;; ; A (I); Trans. B (I)
;;;; ;;; Coda


18.;; ;Who was C.P.E. Bach? What kind of music did he compose?
Son Of J. S. Bach. Served at the court of Fredrick the Great in Berlin from 1740 to 1768 and then became music director of the 5 principle churches in Hamburg.Compositions include oratorios, songs, symphonies, and chamber music. Most important are his works for keyboard
19.;; ;What was his favorite instrument and why?

The Clavihord

It had the capacity for delicate dymanic shadings.;

20.;; ;What was the main characteristics of the empfindsam style?
Had the element of surprise. Consisting of abrupt shifts of harmony, strange modulations, unusual turns of melody, suspensefulness pauses, changes of texture, sudden sforzandos accents, and the like
21.;; ;What is Sturm und Drang?
translated Storm and strss, a movement in German lit. that relished, tomented, gloomy, terrified, irrational feeling.
22.;; ;Where were the principal German centers for symphonic music?
Mannheim, Vienna and Berlin
23.;; ;What was Johann Stamitz and the Mannheim orchestra known for?
Its virtousity, its astonishing and novel dymanics range, and for the thrilling sound of its crescendo.
24.;; ;Describe the typical 18th century orchestra.
small, usually only 25 players, comprising of strings, flute, two oboes, two bassoons, two horns, and a harpsichord. with trumpets and kettle drums oocasionally added. usually gave all the important pieces to the strings and used the woodwinds for doubling.
2.;; ;What was Haydn;s typical form of his earliest symphonies?; What does this form consist of?

Classical three movement form, derived from the Italian opera overtature

Consist of Allegro, an andante in the parallel minor or sub-dominant key, and a minuet or rapid gigue-like movement in 3/8 or 6/8;

;;; Why is it difficult to divide Haydn;s works into distinct periods?
Because he remained in the same job for so long.
3.;; ;Describe Haydn;s career with Prince Esterhazy.;
Peter was a prince and Head of one of the richest and most powerful hungarian families. Haydn came to work for him off and on for the rest of his life (writing symphonies and perfomances)
4.;; ;What are the London symphonies?
The last 12 symphonies Haydn was to compose. Some of the greatest works he ever performed
5.;; ;What is found in most Classic symphonies?;
I don’t know
6.    What new type of closing movement did Haydn develop?    Describe it.

An Allegro or pesto in 2/4 or 2/2, usually shorter thatn the first movement, compact, swiftly moving, overflowing with high spirits and nimble geity, and abounding in whimsical tricks

First appeared in the 1760’s;

7.;; ;What is the Sturm und Drang in his music?
A movement in literature translated, storm and stress. Usually in pieces that portray deep emotion and agitated character. Usually seen in minor keys
8.;; ;What was the difference in Haydn;s symphonies between 1768 ; 74 to those written 1774 ; 88?;

The symphonies of 68-74 are propulsive and dramtatic which demanded close listening. They had a bod unison proclomation followed immediately by a contrasting idea He regarded them as serious work.

The Symphonies in 77-88 are smooth and have assured development of orchestral resources in works that are cheerful and robust. He allowed his comic-opera style to affect his symphonic writing.

9.;; ;What special effects did Haydn use in his symphonies?
The sunnden fortissimo crash on a weak beat. He used tunefulness (well known tunes), such as Slovenian, Croatian, and other peasant tunes he remembered from his youth. Many folk like melodies.; He aimed to please both the casual music lover and the expert.
10. Besides orchestration of the London symphonies, what else is striking about them?

The harmonies. they have a portentous quality (a deliberate dramatic suspense that grips the listener awaiting the allegro)

The sonata form movements.They tend to revolve around the primary subject.;

The Finales. They were usually in Rondo sonata form;

11.;; ;Compare the Haydn string quartets of 1768 ; 1774, the 1780;s and the 1790;s?

The String Quartets of the 1780s were light-hearted, witty, and tuneful.

In the 1790’s, his use of increasingly frequent use of monthematic first movements stands out. the unifying thechnique stands out as well.

The late period are known for their use of the aug. sixth and enharmonic change. And the juxtaposition of the serious and the jocular, the artful and the folksy, the enigmatic and the simple-minded

12.    In general, what do Haydn’s piano sonatas folllo
They follow the same lines of development obeserved in the symohnies and the quartets. (339)
13.    What is distinct about Mozart’s themes from Haydn’s?
They have a distinct melodic profile (346)
14.    Mozart’s piano concertos preserve certain schemes of the Baroque concerto.  What was this scheme?

pg. 354


Exposition, dominant

Orchestra, Solo with orchestra

m.1 P, m18 TT, m30 S, M. 46, KT,   

m67 P , m 82 TT, m 98. S, m.114 K, m 137 TT

15.    Of Mozart’s chief dramatic works, what were the three Italian operas?

Le Nozze di Figaro (The Marriage of Figaro)

Don Giovanni

Cosi Fan Tutte (Woman are like That)