• Amati
o From Cremona
o Andrea Amati
? By 1511-1577
? Known as the father of the modern violin family form
? 2 sons who also made instruments
o Nicolo
? 1596-1684
? Grandson of Andrea Amati
? Best maker of them all
• Stradivari
o Antonio c.a. 1644/49-1737
o Known as the greatest violin maker
o Worked in Cremona
o ~650 of his instruments left
o 1700-1720 was his peak
o Varnish was special and no one can recover or replicate it
o May have been a pupil of Amati
• Guarneri
o From Cremona
o Oldest member of the family studied with Nicolo Amati
? He had 2 sons, and one of them had 2 sons, the youngest of which became a great violin maker
o Giuseppe Guarneri
? Named himself “del Gesu”
? 1698-1744
? As good as Stradivari, but has a different timbre
• Designated name for the trumpet part when used only in its highest range
• Became a technique developed by Baroque trumpeters in Germany and Italy, but was lost after 1750
o Multi-movement orchestral work for one or more soloists
o Was originally a vocal work with instrumental parts written in
o By the end of the 17th c, early 18th c, it started being considered the way it’s considered now
o Contrasting solo and orchestral part
o Usually 3 movements, alternating slow, fast, slow
• Concerto grosso
o Group of soloists
• Solo concerto
o One soloist
• Concertino
o Part where just the soloist or group of soloists is playing
• Ripieno
o When full group, soloist(s) and orchestra, is playing
o Describes imitation
o Imitative counterpoint with a recurring subject
o Tasto solo
? Dominant pedal point
o The number of voices is various
• Subject
o In tonic
o Stated in one voice, played in its entirety
• Countersubject
o Counterpoint against the subject or answer
• Answer
? In dominant, same melodic profile
o Real
? Exact same interval progression as subject
o Tonal
? Alters the intervals and accidentals in order to fit a key
• Exposition
o Subject, answer
o Beginning of a fugue, ending when the last voice finishes playing the subject
o Voices can’t overlap with the subject
o Entries alternate between subject and answer
o May be some filler material(codetta) to ensure modulation
o Most strict part of a fugue
• Re-exposition
o Alternates with episode
o Statement of subject in completion, usually only in one voice
o Subject may be inverted, augmented, use diminusion, or stretto
o Will end with the full subject in tonic
• Episode
o Draws on material from the subject
o Modulatory
o No stable key
o Fairly short, but it’s very flexible
• Stretto
o When all subjects enter close to one another
o Close and in context
• Wrote a flute treatise
• Was a French composer
• His family made instruments
Oboe d’amore
• Considered the “alto” oboe
• In the key of A
Oboe da caccia
• Considered the “tenor” oboe
• In the key of F
Quantz, Johann Joachim
• 1647-1763
• German flutist, composer, and flute maker
• His flutes had 2 keys, unlike most of the transverse flutes that only had one
• Influenced by Vivaldi
• Based at the Saxon court in Dresden, and later worked for the Prussian king Frederick the Great in Berlin
• Instrumental passage that alternates with the solo sections of an aria
• Section of music that returns
• Always harmonically stable
• Modulation occurs in solo section
• Does not always return in full
• Used in special types of writing in Baroque violin sonatas, especially favored by German violinists
• One or more strings were retuned to permit the playing of figurations and chords that would otherwise be impossible
Sonata/Sonata da camera/Sonata da chiesa
o A piece of instrumental music consisting of several section or movements performed by a soloist or small ensemble and basso continuo
o Comes from the word sonore meaning “ to sound”
• Sonata da camera
o Chamber sonata
o Usually in the form of a dance suite, so binary
• Sonata da chiesa
o Church sonata
o Usually four movements alternating slow, fast, slow, fast, and using imitation and counterpoint
Trio Sonata
• Emphasized later in the baroque
• For two melody instruments and continuo, so consists of three distinct lines of music