Work- Requiem Mass (incomplete)
Work- Die Zauberflote
Work- Cosi Fan Tutti
Work- Le Nozze di Figaro
Work- Don Giovanni
Work- 68 String Quartets
Work- 108 Symphonies
Composer- Cristoph Willibald GLUCK
1714- 1787 Bohemia
Operatic Composer
Struck a new balance between music and drama (Reform of Opera Seria)
Composer- William BILLINGS
1746-1800 Boston
Sacred Music
“New England Psalm Singer”
Plaintunes and fuging tunes
Term- Lied
German: “Song”
Song with German words, monophonic or polyphonic, or for voice w/accompaniment
used especially for songs for voice and piano in the 18th and 19th centuries
Term- Singspiel
Spoken dialog interspersed with songs, choruses, and instrumental music
Term- Opera Comique
18th century light French opera, comic
used spoken dialog
Person- Pietro Metastasio
1698- 1782 Italian poet
hundreds of his dramas were set to opera
court poet in Vienna in 1729 (until death)
usually two pairs of lovers + others
Term- Da Capo Aria
Rit- A1- Rit- A2- Rit- B (repeat all but B)
Middle rit in V, B in vi
Term- Aria
Solo piece in Italian opera
da capo aria most popular in 18th century
Person- Giovanni Battista PERGOLESI
1710- 1736 Italian
Wrote the intermezzo “La Serva Padrona”
Term- Intermezzo
18th century genre of Italian comic opera, performed between acts of a serious opera
Term- Opera Buffa
18th century genre of Italian comic opera, sung throughout
Dialog set in rapidly delivered recitative
Term- Opera Seria
Principal form of Italian opera from around 1650-1775
Formal da capo arias joined by recitatives
solo singing dominated
domain of castrati
rules of composition were rigid
Person- Domenico ALBERTI
composer in the early 18th century who was known for a bass line he often used (broken chords) do so mi so
Term- Alberti Bass
broken chord accompaniment common the 18th century, named about Domenico Alberti
Term- Musical Rhetoric
comparing and creating music based on oration or speech
periods and phrases were seen like the subject and predicate as in sentences
Term- Empfindsam style
close relative of the galant style
suprising turns of harmony, chormaticism, nervous rhythms, speechlike melodies
originated in Italy, part of the classical style
Term- Galant style
18th century musical style that featured songlike melodies, short phrases, frequent cadences, and light accompaniment
Term- Periodicity
being periodic, especially when this is emphasized through frequent resting points and articulations between phrases and periods
Term- Classic Period
music in the tradition of the repitoire of musical masterworks of the 19th century
Characterized by its own style, also Galant Style and Empfindsam style
Person- Charles Burney
Author “A General History of Music” published 1776-89 in 4 volumes
Term- The public concert in the 18th century
money makers or professional and amateur musicians
audiences did not have to sit still/be quiet/listen
program was a mi of difference styles and pieces
Term- Popularization of Learning
popular during the Enlightenment
Interesting in education/ culture in all classes
Term- The Enlightenment
movement during the 18th century that promoted naturalness, individuality, and the need for the improvement of human condition.
Leaders: Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rosseau (Philosophers/social reformers)
Term- Humanitarianism
populaer during the Enlightenment
Promoting the welfare of humankind
Date- Mozart’s death in Vienna, age 35
December 5, 1791
Date- Beginning of French Revolution
July 14th, 1789
Date- La Scala opens
August 3, 1778
Date- Declaration of Independence/ First English Music History started by Charles Burney
Date- Beginning of American Revolution
Date- Gluck’s Orfeo revised for performance in Paris in French
Date- Gluck’s orfeo premiered in Vienna in Italian, castrato in the title role
Date- Birth of Mozart in Salzburg
Date- Death of Johann Sebastian Bach
Date- Joseph of Hapsburg, Emperor of Austria’s rule
Date- Maria Theresia rules as empress of Austria
Date- Invention of the clarinet
Date- Bartolomeo Christofori invents the piano
Person- Jean-Jacques ROUSSEAU
Philosopher during the Enlightenment
Person- Ernest Modeste GRETRY
French composer of opera comique
Person- Johann Adolph HASSE
Composer of opera seria
Term- New England hymnody
Congregations were encouraged to read notes rather than learn by rote
Term- The Song and the German Lied
Reflecting the growth of amateur music, songs were composed in many nations.
Lieder tended to be strophic, easy to sing, and supported by a subordinate accompaniment.
The Lied (German song) achieved a special artistic importance.
Term- Gluck’s reform of serious opera
He did not want singers’ wishes or the da capo form to restrict the composer.
# He wanted the overture to be an integral part of the opera.
# He lessened the contrast between recitative and aria.
# His goal was to create music of “a beautiful simplicity.”
Term- Querelle des bouffons (Battle of the comic actors
# Querelle des bouffons (Quarrel of the Comic Actors) was a pamphlet war beginning in 1752 that argued the relative merits of French and Italian opera.
Term- Ballad opera
Genre of 18th century English comic play featuring songs in which new words are set to borrowed tunes
Term- Ensemble finale
End of an act, all singers gradually join in the action until all are present at the climax. Development of later comic opera
Work- Die Entfuhrug aus dem Serail (The Abduction from the Harem)
Mozart (singspeil)
Work- Jupiter Symphony
Mozart (Symphony no.41)
Work- Dissonant Quartet
Work- 6 string quartet dedicated to Haydn
Work- Die Schopfung (The Creation)
Work- The Seasons
Work- Lord Nelson Mass
Work- Farewell Symphony
Work- London Symphonies
Work- Surprise Symphony
Work- Paris Symphonies
Work- Versuch einer Anweisung die Flote traversiere (Flute method)
Work- Versuch einer grundlichen violin schule (violin method)
Leopold Mozart
Work- Essay on the true art of playing keyboard instruments (1753)
CPE Bach
Work- 555 Keyboard sonatas
Work- Orfeo ed Euridice
Work- Richard the Lion-Hearted
Work- Cleofide
Work- La Serva Padrona
Person- Johann Christian BACH
Youngest son of JS Bach, among the first to compose piano concertos. Wrote in the galant syle, great influence on the young Mozart
Person- Johann STAMITZ
1717- 1757
Director of the Mannhiem orchestra, first to use many of the traditional symphony techniques
Person- CPE Bach
Wrote mostly for keyboard
He served in the court of Frederick the Great from 1740 to 1768.
Composer- Domenico Scarlatti
1685-1757 Italian
mostly keyboard works (wrote 555 sonatas for keyboard)
Term- Rounded binary form
binary form in which the latter part of the first section returns at end of the second section, but in the tonic
Term- Rondo and sonata rondo
Term- Minuet and trio
joins 2 binary-form minuets , repeating the first after playing the second (ABA)
Term- The symphony
Large work for orchestra, usually in 4 movements, developed in Italy from the overture
Term- The sonata form
Expansion of rounded binary
Exposition, Development, Recapitulation based on themes
Term- The sonata
Piece in several movements for solo instrument
Term- the 18th century orchestra
Smaller than today’s, flute, oboes, bassoons, horns, 12 to 16 strings, harpsichord, sometimes trumpets and timpani
Term- The clarinet
invented around 1710, regular woodwind by 1780s
Term- The string quartet
chamber ensemble consisting of 2 violins, viola, and cello or a multi-movement work for this type of ensemble
Term- The pianoforte and fortepiano
The piano replaced the harpsichord and clavichord.
invented in 1700
Franz Joseph HAYDN
1732-1809 Austrian
Served the Esterhazy family in Hungary
wrote 104 symphonies, 20 concertos, 68 string quartets, etc
Wrote many works for baryton (Nick. Esterhazy played it)
Style: The galant style, The expressiveness of the empfindsam style, Baroque counterpoint, Generic cliches
Composer- MOZART
1756- 1791 Austrian
Influenced by CPE Bach
Freelance musician
Basically the best ever.
Person- Esterhazy patrons/ Prince Nicholas von Esterhazy
Most powerful family in Hungary, Nicholas played the baryton. Hired Haydn to compose for them at their estate, Eszerhaza Palace
Person- Leopold Mozart
Father of Wolfgang, violinist and composer
Person- Marianne “Nannerl” Mozart
Mozart’s sister, keyboard player
Person: Ludwig Von Kochel
Austrian scholar
Organized Mozart’s works
Person- Emanuel Schikanader
Mozart’s Librettist for The Magic Flute, the first Papageno
Person- Antonio SALIERI
Composed mostly operas (comic/serious) Court Composer in Vienna, wrote from the Vienna choir boys
Person- Emperor Joseph II of Austria
Music supporter , lots of music in court.
Person- Lorenzo Da Ponte
Librettist for Mozart’s Don Giovanni, Marriage of Figaro, and Cosi Fan Tutti
Work- The Beggar’s Opera
arranged by Pepusch, text complied by Gay
Term- Mozart cadenzas
occur at the end of the recap. before the coda. Sometimes improvised, sometimes written out
Term- Concerto sonata form
2 expositions: 1 for orchestra alone (does not modulate to the dominant), 1 for soloist and orchestra (mod. to V). In a keyboard concerto, the soloist is always playing, either as continuo or as a soloist