The changing Western World of the 18th century was…
ruled by political powers France, Britain, and Prussia; middle class grew in size and power; increase in literacy (more newspapers), idolized nature and pastoral themes
Which city had conservatories that became centers of music training-especially for singers?
Which city attracted instrumental performers including Geminiani and Locatelli?
In which city did Vivaldi spend most of his career?
What instrument did Vivaldi feature as a soloist in most of his concertos?
Most of Vivaldi’s concertos were first performed by
female students
What did Vivaldi contribute to the concertato genre?
The preference for 3 movements, strings were divided into violins I and II, viola, and cellos/string basses, he used color effects (pizz and muted strings)
What was Vivaldi’s typical ritornello form?
Opening and closing rit. are in the tonic key, the rit. melody is composed of several smaller units, the solo sections often modulate to related keys, and the solo sections have virtuosic display
Vivaldi’s Four Seasons
contains four works that have programmatic images
What kind of concert was sponsored by the Concert spirituel?
public concerts
The leading composer of French violin and trio sonatas in the early 18th century was…
Francois Couperin
What was the subject matter of Couperin’s L’art de toucher le clavecin?
instructions on playing the harpsichord
Describe the ordres of Couperin.
they comprise a loose collection of mini pieces for the harpsichord, most of the pieces were based on dance themes, binary forms are prevalent, and many pieces have evocative titles
Which two composers were honores by Couperin in published suites for two violins and harpsichord
Corelli and Lully
Which patron was instrumental in Rameau’s earliest successes as a composer?
Jean-Joseph de la Poupliniere
What professions did Rameau have?
organ performer, theorist, composer of opera and instrumental music
Ramaeu believed that the fundamental bass was…
the succession of fundamental tones in a series of chords
Describe Rameau’s operatic style.
a mix of recitative, air, instrumental music, and chorus
Rameau’s first major opera in Paris was…
Hippolyte et Aricie
In which way do the operas of Rameau differ from those of Lully in that they…
have melodic ideas that are often triadic
one of the most famous castrati that became an international superstar and commanded huge fees
Carlos Broschi Farinelli
il preto rosso
Vivaldi’s nickname (the red-headed priest)
Vivalidi was the master of violin and superintendant of instruments here; run like a boarding school; one of the 4 hospitals in Venice
Pio Ospedale della Pieta
played by orchestra and alternated with episodes for soloist; the melody contains small melodi units that can be manipulated by the soloists or other instruments; first and last are in the tonic, the second is in the dominant, and the rest are in related key; Vivaldi’s fast movements were usually in this form
ritornello form
Opus 3 by Vivaldi, Harmonic Inspiration, part of his 9 collections of concertos, established his reputation and was the most influential collection of music in the early 18th century
L’estro armonic
Opus 8 by Vivaldi, The Test of Harmony and Invention, part of his 9 collections of concertos
Il cimento dell’armonia e dell’inventione
Opus 8 contains this, his four most famous concertos; the sonnet described a season, the music depicts images for each season.
The Four Seasons
a public concert series established in 1725 in PARIS
concert spirituel
Treatise by Couperin that is one of the most important sources of keyboard performance practice of the French Baroque
L’art de toucher le clavecin
Jean-Joseph de la Pouplieniere
Trait de l’harmonie
fundamental bass
Frederick the Great played the
Whose music was more popular than Bach’s in their time?
In which city did Bach primarily compose ensemble music for courtly entertainment?
Bach’s jobs in Leipzig:
composing cantatas for two most important local churches, teaching music and Latin to boys in the St. Thomas School, leading an exemplary Christian life, and playing organ
Bach learned to compose by:
copying manuscripts of works by Italian composers
Bach composed music in all but one genre…which one?
Bach’s Orgelbuechlein contains what type of works?
choral preludes
Which publication contains 24 preludes and fugues in all of the major and mino keys?
Well-Tempered Clavier
Which publication uses a theme by Frederick the Great?
The Musical Offering
Describe the soloists in the Brandenburg Concertos.
There is a wide variety of soloists, often treated in the style of the solo concerto
Bach’s cantatas usually end with what?
Lutheran choral in four part harmony
Describe Bach’s Mass in B Minor.
It has movements adapted from earlier compositions, mixes a variety of sacred styles, is his only complete setting of the Catholic Mass Ordinary, and he never heard the performed in its entirety
What was Handel’s first opera?
How was Bach’s works viewed after his death?
His compositions were not performed until they were revived in the 19th century
Why was the Royal Academy Music established?
to produce Italian opera
Handel’s Operas were what?
What is the language of the oratorios that Handel composed in London?
How do Handel’s Oratorios differ from Italian oratorios?
religious subjects rather than stories from antiquity
Here, Bach was court music directer and composed solo and ensemble music as well as pedagogical works
Here, Bach was director of the collegium musicum and wrote concertos and chamber works
In Leipzig, this was where Bach regularly directed the musi for services; this is a school where boys learned academics and music; requirement was to sing one of the 4 churhces
St. Thomas’s School
Introductory piece for solo instrument, often in the style of an IMPROVISATION, or introductory MOVEMENT in a multimovement work such as an OPERA or SUITE.
Relatively short setting for organ of a CHORALE MELODY, used as an introduction for congregational singing or as an interlude in a Lutheran church service
choral prelude
This manuscript collection of chorale preludes was written by Bach in Weimar
Bach: There are two separate publications, each of which has twenty-four preludes and fugues. The pairs of movements in each collection are set in all of the major and minor keys in order to demonstrate the possibilities for playing in all keys using an instrument tuned in near-equal temperament.
Well-Tempered Clavier
This collection of Bach’s has a three- and a six-part ricercare for keyboard and ten canons, based on a theme proposed by Frederick the Great; Bach added a trio sonata for flute (Frederick’s instrument), violin, and continuo and dedicated the work to the king.
A Musical Offering
Bach dedicated these six works to the margrave of Brandenburg.
Brandenburg Concerto
An association of amateurs, popular during the BAROQUE PERIOD, who gathered to play and sing together for their own pleasure.
collegium musicum
Form of Lutheran church music in the eighteenth century, combining poetic texts with texts drawn from CHORALES or the Bible, and including RECITATIVES, ARIAS, chorale settings, and usually one or more CHORUSES.
church cantata
a theologian and poet that created a new type of sacred work that he called by the Italian term cantata.
Erdmann Neumeister
Bach’s only complete setting of the Catholic Mass Ordinary, assembled between 1747 and 1749.
Mass in B minor
Handel became the music director for the elector of this city, the heir to the British throne
was the elector; when he became king in 1714 he doubled Handel’s pension.
King George I
devoted to producing Italian opera, Handel was the music director, performance were at the King’s Theatre in the Haymarket
Royal Academy of Music
where the performances by the Royal Academy Music were held
King’s Theatre in the Haymarket
also known as recitative secco (dry); long passages of dialogue and monologue set in a speech-like fashion accompanied by the basso continuo
simple recitative
the orchestra used this in tense situations, aka recitative obbligato
accompanied rectitative
(Italian, “first lady”) A soprano singing the leading female role in an OPERA. See also DIVA.
prima donna
Handel created this new genre; sacred entertainments based on well-known biblical stories; continued the Italian tradition of setting dialogue in recitative and lyrical verses as arias, which resemble his operatic settings; prominent use of the chorus
English oratorio
Bach: The theme is set with a sarabande rhythm; The thirty variations preserve the bass and harmonic structure of the theme; Every third variation is a canon.
Goldberg Variations
Bach: This collection systematically demonstrates all types of fugal writing. The last fugue has four themes, inlcuding one that spells out his name B-A-C-H.
Art of Fugue
Bach Gesellschaft
Handels set of three suites for winds and strings, was performed during a royal procession on the River Thames.
Water Music
an oratorio by Handel; the libretto, taken from the Bible, does not tell a story, but presents a series of contemplations on Christian ideas. The texts extend from the prophecies of a messiah to the resurrection; The music again reflects a mixture of styles.
Handel’s suite originally for winds, accompanied a fireworks display in London celebrating the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle.
Music for the Royal Fireworks
guideposts to the tonal structure, confirming the keys the music modulates ex: Vivaldi’s Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in A minor
among the most proponents of blending French and Italian tastes; the first and most important French composer of trio sonatas
The vast output of many 18th century composers was partly due to an increasing demand for new music by the:
middle class
This genre was the center of life in Naples
The leading composer of Italian opera at the turn of the 18th century, writing at least one composition a year
a new more serious style of Italian opera emerged in the 1720s, codified by the following librettist
Pietro Metastasio
admired Vivaldi’s compositional techniques and it is evident in his keyboard arrangements of at least Vivaldi’s concertos
This city was renowned for its public festivals, which outnumbered simliar festivities in other cities
The best known composer of the early 18th century
The majority of Vivaldi’s concertos follow a 3 movement plan introduced by
Tomaso Albinoni
Describe the 3 movement plan employed by Vivaldi:
an opening fast movement, a slow movement in the same or related key, and a final fast movement in the tonic
His 16 sinfonias established him as a leading figure in the development of the classic symphony
another name for suites
leading composer in Naples
this city never had fewer than 6 opera companies
first composer to treat this movement as equal to the fast movements
What are the standard four dance movements of Germany?
allemande, courante, sarabande, gigue