the mathematical arts
double-reed instrument of ancient Greece
chanting of Jewish sacred texts based on melodic formulas
a song in honor of Dionysus
“soft”; hexachord that includes b-flat
box lyre used by professional musicians
double-reed instrument of ancient Rome
note symbols of the same duration in plainchant
early Roman water-powered organ
“hard”; hexachord that includes the b-natural
the verbal arts
the most numerous category of plainchant
assembling melodies by rearranging echoes in Byzantine chant
Cleonide’s term for melodic types based on melodic formulas
small note symbol at end of line of chant indicating note to follow
the public service of the Catholic Church
a vocal ornament in ascending figures in plainchant notation
a song from scripture other than the psalms
embellished monophonic texture
circular horns used for military functions in ancient Rome
the pitch-syllable system developed by Guido d’Arezzo
straight trumpet of ancient Rome
graduated reed pipe instrument of ancient rome
Martianus Cappella

-educational system he came up withe was the 7 liberal arts; quadrivium (the mathematical arts) & trivium (the rhetorical arts)

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-the mathematical arts (arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy)

-the rhetorical arts (grammar, logic, and rhetoric)

Ut queant laxis
a system that Guido d’Arezzo came up with that taught singers how to read music.; He came up with syllables from the Latin text to go with notes [ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, (ti, do)]; it was later changed to (ti, do) and “ut” became “do”


-In ancient Greek music, the tetrachord spanned the interval of a perfect fourth and was the smallest system commonly used

-three different types of tetrachords in the Greek system (diatonic, chromatic, and enharmonic)

-The Greater Perfect System used four tetrachords

De institutione musica
“the fundamentals of music” written by Boethius that was comprised of three main musical classes he had developed.; it was comprised of musica mandana, musica humana, and musica instrumentalis
Rule of St. Benedict

-instructions on how to run a monestary

-included liturgy of the Divine office

-showed the monks what to do

The Schola Cantorum
training centers for the choir that sang for observances officiated by the pope
C, F and G
Hexachord scales in the Guidonian system begin on
The parts of the mass that remain constant regardless of the liturgical calendar
musica mundanae
denoted the inaudible harmonious numerical relations observable;in the movement of the planets, in the change of seasons and within the elements
psalm tones
the eight melodic formulas to which Psalms and other texts were sung
Gregorian chant
originated as a synthesis of Roman and Frankish chant styles
the last vowels in the Lesser Doxology
The Greater Perfect System

-a series of tetrachords linked to form a two-octave range of usable pitches

1. Hyperbolaion

2. Diezeugmenon

3. Mese

4. Meson

5. Hypaton

6. Proslambanomenos

Guidonian hand
followers of Guido d’Arezzo used it for locating the pitches of the diatonic scale
Doctrine of Ethos
stated that music had the power to alter the moods/emotions of the hearer
Plagal scale
began a perfect fourth below its final
the independent, texted melodies that included long, melismatic extensions of the Alleluia of the Mass
the lirturgical book containing the texts of the Divine Office
Notker Balbulus
adding texts to long melismas to make them more memorizable
determining the plagal dominant of a church mode
the third scale degree below the dominant of its authentic partner
Diatonic, chromatic, enharmonic
three genera of tetrachords in the Greek system of music theory
Jewish music in the first century C.E.
was performed by a choir of levites at the Temple of Jerusalem
Greek names for church modes
the use of greek names for church modes comes from a misreading of Greek modal theory
prescribed texts and rites that collectively consitiute the religious services of the Church
range, final and dominant
how the eight church modes are primarily defined
Ancient Greek music theory included concepts of
intervals, scales, and tetrachords
Instrumental music
early church leaders believed it could evoke pagan practices, and therefore should be suppressed
the name Guido used to refer to his system of modulation
Greater Hours of the Divine Office

1. Matins

2. Laudes

3. Vespers

4. Compline

Five regional chant liturgies & their area of origin

1. Gallican (France)

2. Old Roman (Rome)

3. Celtic (British Isles & Ireland)

4. Mozarabic (Spain)

5. Ambrosian (Milan)

Classifications of ecclesiastical (church) chant

a. source origins

    i. Biblical

    ii. non-Biblical

b. literary forms

    i. prose

    ii. poetry

c. performance practice

    i. direct

    ii. responsorial

    iii. antiphonal

d. text setting

    i. neumatic

    ii. syllabic

    iii. melismatic

Agnus Dei

(from the Ordinary)

“Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world”


(from the Ordinary)

“Lord, have mercy on us.  christ, have mercy on us.  Lord, have mercy on us.”


(from the Ordinary)

“I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth.”


(from the Ordinary)

“Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God Almighty.”


(from the Ordinary)

“Glory to God in the Highest and on earth peace goodwill towards men.”