Leonin and Perotin
little is known about perotin, but both were big names. two musicians known for creating polyphony at Notre Dame. Leonin became a priest, wrote 8 books and several shorter works. Leonin came first, although they did live in the same-ish time period.
troubadour and trouvere
chanssonieres (songbook) for the troubadours who spoke occitan and lived in southern france. trouveres lived in northern france
hurdy gurdy
3 stringed instrument with a crank. crank sounded 2 strings whilst you played the third. fool.
double reed, oboe ancestor. no keys, only holes
little dramas
made of wood, and had a cupped mouthpiece like a trumpet
high and low instruments
refers to dynamics not pitch of instruments
style of organum when both parts move at about the same rate. long melisma.
initially all parallel motion, no independent movement.
style of organum, upper voice moves much more, while the chant melody is in the bass
Magnum Liber Organi
Leonin was credited with compiling the “great book of polyphony”. contained two voice settings of solo portions of the responsorial chants for major feasts at the church or something like it.
ars antiqua
old art; refers to the music of Europe of the late Middle Ages between approximately 1170 and 1310
ars nova
musical style which flourished in France and the Burgundian Low Countries in the Late Middle Ages: more particularly, in the period between the preparation of the Roman de Fauvel and the death of the composer Guillaume de Machaut (1310 – 1377ish)
duplum, triplum and quadruplum
long moving notes and a slow chant melody. leonin wrote mostly in duplum and perotin wrote in triplum and quadruplum. parts had relatively small range and thus crossed a lot.
self-contained section of organum. substitute clausula could be moved around.
polyphonic conductus
notre dame composers, set for 2-4 voices, still perfect intervals ver occasional 3rds, tenor part had more movement.
a solo introduction to a piece.
franconian notation
new note shapes (for duration of note)
Petrus de Cruce
invented the barline, it was a dot at the time
a round where the voices trade
round, a perpetual canon at the unison
tempus perfectus
triple meter
tempus imperfectus
duple meter
a musical technique that arranges a fixed pattern of pitches with a repeating rhythmic pattern.
french term ”hiccup”. two voices alternating in rapid succession each resting while the other sings
Guillame de Machaut
French, and a poet and of the ars nova period. Notre Dame. 1377 died. mass de notre dame (most famous work) each voice had it’s own part.
Francesco Landini
Blind organist, composer and instrument maker. Most popular italian composer
squarcialupi codex
a collection of music
italian poetic and musical form
popular style melody is set in strict canon to lively, and graphically descriptive words
musica ficta
musicians were trained to use chromatic alterations during a performance. performer chose the optional alteration or not, mostly to avoid tritones in the melody
early trombone ancestor. considered a high instrument
liturgical drama
musical drama associated with the church liturgy, performed by town guilds
responsorial chant
chant is alternated between the soloist and the group
two singers, one sings as written other adds ornamentation
animal skin used as paper
ordo virtutum
hildegard, first major piece by woman not associated with liturgy
liber usualis
big book of chants trying to standardize chant throughout all the churches
vincentino, earliest purely instrumental forms. popular in italy
program chanson
french secular song feat. word painting, janequin
john dowland, ancestor to guitar tablature, method of notation for lute and other strings
sonata pian e forte
gabrieli, first piece of music to specify dynamics, late 1500s
juan del encino, spanish polyphonic secular song musical form spanish
musica transalpina
nicholas yonge collection of italian madrigals translated into english
triumphs of orianna
Thomas Moorely, collection of 25 madrigals by 23 different composers dedicated to queen elizabeth
sacred service
henry 8, refers to the sacred music of the protestant church post-reformation, because they didn’t use the catholic mass
exposition and answer
exposition is the main theme, and usually played on tonic. the answer usually will be a response (maybe even the exposition) on the dominant.
German word for town pipers
orchestral concerto
work in several movements that emphasized the first violin part and the bass, distinguishing the concerto from the more contrapuntal texture characteristic of the sonata
concerto grosso
set a small ensemble of solo instruments (concertino) against a large ensemble (concerto grosso)
sonata de chiesa (church sonata)
contained mostly abstract movements, often including one or more that used dance rhythms or binary form but were not usually titled as dances.
chamber sonata (sonata da camera)
series of stylized dances often beginning with a prelude
the text for worship
directional notes in old notation. the showed contour and direction, but not the actual note
Guido d’Arezzo
(991-1033) invented solfege and the four line staff; Schola Cantorum
Guido’s Hand
Guido d’Arezzo’s hand system of solfege
offices and vespers
a series of services that occurred at specific times in the day. vespers was the most important one musically and occurred at sunset
German; knightly poetic musicians
a collection of songs, praising the virgin mary
style of organum, upper voice moves much more while the chant melody is in the bass
performance practice
how music should be performed with strict authenticity
Causa pulchritudinis
‘for the sake of beauty’. this goes with the musica ficta; the idea that the soloist had control over exactly what pitch they wanted if expressed by the composer, so as to avoid tritones
(480-524 AD) theoretician; De Instituione Musica
Johannes Tinctoris
wrote “LIber de Arte Contrapuncti”, which outlined the new standards of harmony and said nothing written before 1430 was worth hearing
an unwritten part that was parallel to the cantus firmus. improvised, probably a 6th away
faburden (fauxbourdon)
another improvised part, similar to the discant
polyphonic; alternated a verse with a chorus (called a burden)
John Dunstable
composed in all polyphonic (mostly vocal) genres, both sacred and secular.
still evolving, thought of as a church anthem. review. p 174
Martin Luther
reformation and “all that shit”
missa choralis
a plainsong mass
ground bass
a short, directly repeated, usually descending and minor, bass melody. very popular during the baroque
Josquin des prez
first big composer of the renaissance, highly respected. held many prestigious court positions and even worked for the pope. wrote masses, motetes, chansons
new words to old music, borrowing was a compliment, not copyright infringement.
hymn tunes in the lutheran church, and written for the congregation
extended work based ona chorale, counterpointed all over the place. Came in cycles of 260 (5 years of sundays)
King Henry VIII
all his wives and shit. know it.
catholicism and england in the renaissance
mass=service (were all in English)
fall anthem- a capella, usually polyphonic
verse anthem- accompanied
Thomas Tallis
composed through all the monarchy and church changes, wrote for both
William Byrd
English composer. Was Catholic, but no one killed him cause he had mad skills writing music. He did write for both like Tallis
Spem in Alium
40 part motet by Tallis, written in Latin for Queen Elizabeth
a catch-all generic term, secular, a million different forms
word painting
applies to vocal music, and the words dictate what is done with the melody
Italian, renaissance, experimented with dissonance, quarter tones and chromaticism
renaissance, experimented with dissonance. murdered his wife
Jacques Arcadelt
madrigal composer of the renaissance
Claudin de sermisy
french, invented a very pictoral form of the chanson
Michael Praetorius
composer, but mostly known for the Syntagma Musicum: an early music encyclopedia. also did collections and arrangements of dances.
Michael Praetorius’ famous collection of 312 instrumental dances (1612)
Giovanni Gabrieli
very famous baroque composer, wrote the first piece that we know of that had specified dynamic markings. The king of polychoral antiphonal church music.
a collection of dances
instrumental pieces for church
basso continuo
new to the baroque. the chord part only gave bass notes and the rest was figured bass or improvised
the term for the keyboard players improvisation from the given bass line
actually a cello, got the same part as the chord player, only plays the line
The Camerata
a group of noblemen in Florence, Italy that were poutting on Greek plays and decided to set the Greek chorus to music, then the whole thing. Both the Camerata and Monteverdi are credited with the birth of opera
pastoral drama
play with music and songs interpersed, and dealt with riral settings
madrigal comedy
a cycle telling a story, usually silly
higher dollar show, let more directly to opera
a passage in which the words are sung in a way that resembles speech
originally any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer
Italian word for symphony
introduction to what’s coming next. often returns (ritorn) at the end
Claudio Monteverdi
only wrote vocal works. was both a Baroque and Renaissance composer, and quite successful. L’Euridice, L’orfeo yada yada
For your studying pleasure, this gem is taken directly from someone’s notes: absolute rock stars….with no balls.
concitato genere
excited style, a quick thing to convey anger or any other emotion in early opera
Francesca Caccini
Florence, Italy. first female opera composer, also sang and was a big name
the guy in charge of the theater. a modern day producer
operatic diva
the singers figured out they could make a lot of money and attention
Barbara Strozzi
female composer of madrigals, cantatas and arias. wrote for small private gatherings rather than large, public audiences.
ground bass
repeating pattern in bass, upper voices work to hide the repetition
sacred concerto
like a catholic version of cantanta
short sung piece, frequently aria
stile antico
old style (polyphony, counterpoint)
stile moderno
new style, early 17th century
works for chorus, orchestra and soloist
Giacomo Carissimi
leading composer of latin oratorios. Jepthah and stuff
Heinrich Shutz
Luteran composer, known for church music. Studied with Gabrieli
oratorio dealing specifically with holy week
luteran genre based on biblical narrative
salamone Rossi
Jewish composer, and quite important. dunno why.
Elisabeth Jacquet de la Guerre
child prodigy, french, was apart of the king’s mistress’s entourage, wrote some keyboard sonatas, opera and was big at her time….recently rediscovered
French Castrati
Henry Purcell
Mid-baroque, brought up in music from childhood, died of pneumonia and is in Westminster abbey. was a major composer of the time. wrote dido and aenaus, the most performed baroque opera
a round with raunchy text
Alessandro Scarlatti
NOT DOMINICO! wrote a lot of vocal music. was born the same year as Bach (1685) and other things maybe?
Arcangelo Corelli
played violin, no vocal music, only chamber music
Trio sonata
Jean-Philippe Rameau
Paris, wrote “treatise on harmony”, much of which still applies and was absolutely huge at the time. wrote operas and ballets
Antonio Vivaldi
Worked at Pieta, which was a hospital/boarding school/welfare institution that provided excellent musical instruction to young women with talent, paralleled the conservatories. Worked there for 40 years on and off. was an ordained priest, and was known as the ‘red priest’ cause he had red hair, eventually quit priesthood because of his asthma. played violin and wrote several hundred concertos, mostly instrumental.
J.S. Bach
didn’t write one opera. church musician. wrote a lot, look it up. It’s Bach.
went to italy and absorbed the style. pretty much became an italian composer. Went to Hanover, Germany and stuff happened. Went to London and was highly successful. Went back to Hanover and went back to London after that, without Hanover’s blessing (oooooo!). Water Music is the pieces that supposedly won King George’s heart over after Queen Elizabeth died. Messiah and stuff…apparently, King George started the tradition of standing during the hallelulia chorus