a hymn that celebrated deeds of primary gods
wild choral song-honored dionysus
was a tightly nit social gathering among adult men where they came together for conversation/entertainment
a song setting of a brief lyrical poem
basic unit of time in ancient greek notation – eighth note
quarter note
dotted quarter
instrument – sheep guts
big lyre
wind instrument; round single reed or flat double reed; two parts – mouthpiece and resonator
6th century astronomer/mathematician
music of the spheres
mythology that stars and planets rotated in balanced proportions – harmonious
single string stretched over a wooden block
succession of 4 pages
low A. lowest sounding pitch
greater perfect system
framework of the greek two octave system
diatonic genus
basic genus in greek system – primary tetrachord spanning intervals STT
enharmonic genus
semitones, etc
aka aulos (wind instrument that looks like a bone)
seven liberal arts
TRIVIUM = grammar, logic, rhetoric
QUADRIVIUM = arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music
c. 480-524ce – roman senator, wrote a treatise on each quadrivium including Fundamentals of Music which became the required school text for music theory tenets of greek music theory:
Fundamentals of Music
written by Boethius; said 1. Music is a science and numeral ratios determined scale intervals and consonance/dissonance
2. Entire universe can be divided into 3 types of music: musica mundane, humana and instrumentalis
3. Musicus/Cantor definitions
Musica mundane
music of the spheres
musica humana
music of the human body
music instrumentalis
earthly vocal and instrumental music
musicologist who studies and understands music
the one who performs the music (in english)- the person who is specially trained to lead the music of the church community
collection of prayers, chants, readings and ritual acts that are practiced
monophonic religious music sung in a house of worship
coptic chant
church in egypt that developed own chant – own liturgy too from coptic church
byzantine chant
byzantine church [ split from the roman church] – own liturgy and special dilect of chant- became notated and music theory developed to explain it
roman chant
early churches of rome – source of gregorian chant
ambrosian chant
milan in northern italy
mozarabic chant
christians living under muslim rule in spain – notated but the notation doesn’t specify distance between pitches
gallican chant
christian music of early medieval Gaul (France/Switzerland) – mostly improvised – some copied into books of gregorian chant. Longer, flowery, exuberant.
monk or nun – solitary religious person
rule of st benedict
code of conduct to regulate daily life in a monastic community – applied = to both men and women
canonical hours/ liturgical offices
set of eight periods of worship occurring throughout the day
opus dei
work of the lord – the canonical hours were the work of the lord
a service that required much singing and lasted forever
late afternoon service – most important of the 8 canonical hours – included magnificat
gregorian chant/plain song
music sung daily at the 8 canonical hours; almost entirely monophonic and sung in unison; named after pope gregory though he didn’t write any; remained official music of roman catholic church until 2nd vatican council; created north of the alps during the 9th – 10th centuries; mixed italian, french and german music
holy roman emptire
most gregorian chant written during this time; started in 800ce
first holy roman emperor crowned by pope (leo 3) – resuscitate old roman empire but w/God instead of paganism
book of 150 psalms in the old testament being sung; all 150 had to be sung to God each week
act or process of singing the psalms
chief musician leading the singing
antiphonal singing
divided choir alternately sings back and forth
closing like the “gloria patri” – praise to the holy trinity
a short chant specific to the day came before the psalm and was repeated after it (after the doxology)
psalm tones
simple recitation formulas – intonation, recitation, mediation, recitation, termination
psalm tones
simple recitation formulas – intonation, recitation, mediation, recitation, termination
most important religious service each day in the monastery – includes the eucharist
the proper of the mass
chants who’s texts change each day to suit the religious theme or to honor a particular saint on that one day – Introit, Gradual, Alleluia/tract, sequence, offertory, communion
the ordinary of the mass
chants with unvarying texts that are sung/can be sung every day of the year: kyrie, gloria, credo, sanctus, agnus dei, ite, missa est
chant that accompanies the entry of the priests and abbot or bishop into the church and up the high altar
syllabic chant
only one note for each syllable of text
neumatic chant
multiple notes for each syllable of text (3-5)
melismatic chant
chant that employs melismas; found in more important services such as matins, vespers, and the mass
ancient greek text asking for mercy
profession of faith formulated at the council of nicea in 325 – syllabic – usually just the one melody
long and wide; originally sung from an elevated position; has an antiphon and a psalm verse (not sung by the chorus antiphonally) instead it is a respond
where the chorus prefaces then responds to the psalm sung by the soloist
responsorial singing
choral respond, solo verse, choral respond (GRADUAL)
cry of joy; responsorial and melismatic; melisma on the final “a”; respond – verse – respond; alleluia – verse – alleluia; both alleluia and gradual are reflective chants – no “action” in the service
the melisma on the final “a” of the alleluia; called jubilus because the choir/community celebrates the redemption given by jesus
John St. Gall
wrote De Musica (on music); Set forth 8 church modes in a system with numbers – essentially defined modes
8 church modes
dorian, hypodorian, phrygian, hypophrygian, lydian, hypolydian, mixolydian, hypomixolydian
authentic mode
first mode of each pair in the 8 church modes
plagal mode
second move of the pair; “Derived” mode from authentic mode – a 4th below the authentic mode – but are the same sequence of notes, just different pitch levels
signs for single pitches as well as groups; several pitches could be indicated with one neume; suggested direction of music (up or down) but didn’t necessarily indicate how far it went
a symbol on a line or space representing a single, precise pitch – established by 1000ce
guido of arezzo
italian monk who spearheaded the musical staff and creation of note names
written by guido of arezzo (little essay) c1030; indicated everything a musician needed to know – scale intervals, church modes, transposition and even about singing in polyphony
different pitches to different syllables; set forth by Guido in Letter to Brother Michael – derived from a church hymn – able to isolate the semi-tone
natural hexachord
6 note pattern, placed on C – TTSTT
soft hexachord
set on f
hard hexachord
set on G
guidonian hand
a staff on the hand – mnemonic aid…no books to read
an addition of music/text/both to a preexisting chant inserted into liturgy to elaborate the theme of a preexisting chant which was not changed – usually added to the proper of the mass, at the beginning before the introit
Tuotilo of St Gall
composed the trope Hodie Cantandus est nobis in 900. Monk
began as a trope addition of music/text to preexisting chant – followed another chant instead of beginning or alternating with it
notker balbulus
at st. gall; the “toothless stammerer” who wrote book of sequences called Natus Ante Saecula (born before the ages); possesses double verse structure
Double verse structure
each musical phrase is sung twice to accommodate a pair of verses- exemplifies antiphonal singing
Dies irae
day of wrath- written during 13th century- is the sequence for the Reqieum Mass (mass of the dead). Talks about hellfire on judgment day. Macabre and spooky
celibate Christian women lived there
main female singer that directed the choir
Hildegard of bingen
1098-1170- nun- became mother superior in 1136- composed 77 chants and liturgical drama.
Scivias (Know you the ways)
visions from Hildegard- compiled into a book of revelations. Text finds way into chants
music from hildegard that was compiled at the end of her life
Diabolus in musica
devil in music- dissonant tritone
Ordo virtutum (play of the virtues)
collection of some 80 chants that form a full length music drama- it is a liturgical drama
liturgical drama
religious play with music intended to be inserted into the liturgy, before the mass- plot confrontation between soul and the devil- virtues win out
poet- musicians who traveled- flourished with new courtly art in the south of france
Langue d’oc (Occitan)
language of southern france- tongue of the troubadours
poet/musician in the north
Langue d’oil
northern french poet/musican language
song of the south
song of the north
book of songs in the north
ideal love applied to chivalric society
countess beatrix de dia
wrote the sole extant song by a trobairitz- wrote I must sing laments failure in love strophic- has repetitive formal plan ABABCDB
Eleanor of Aquitaine
court where troubadors flourished
Angevin kingdom
scotland/england/normamdy/aquitane – much music and art
bernart de ventadorn
troubadour at Chinon (fav castelf oe Eleanor of Aquitaine)- foremost- we have a biography (vida) of him. Left 45 poems 18 with melodies. Including “when I see the lark”
richard the lionheart
King Richard I of England- fav son of Eleanor- set poetry to music- was a trouvere (language of the north)- wrote “truly a captive doesn’t speak his mind” when held captive from 1192-1194. AAB form
german poet musician writing a minnesang
song of love in old high german
Cantigas de Santa Maria
400 songs surviving- collected in 1270 by Alfonso the Wise (also might have written some of them)- honor the Virgin Mary/miracles but secular music style. AAB form which is used by most troubadourians
Alfonso the Wise
collected the songs for the cantigas de santa maria manuscripts (may have wrote some)
musica enchiriadis (music handbook)
music theory treatise- first documented appearance of polyphonic music. From a Benedictine abbey in NW Germany dating from 890s. Author- Abbot Hoger- taught musicians a technique for improvising music extempore- NOT intended to teach theory.
organum (pl. organa)
became term to connotate polyphony (matches the sound generated by the organ)<---- Oh?
parallel organum
an organum where all the voices move in lockstep up or down with the intervals between the voices staying the same – basic form with 2 parts
vox principalis
a principal voice that is a preeexisting chant that is enhanced
vox organlis
organal voice; a newly created line that is added to the chant, typically primary consonances (8, 5, 4); the 4th and 5th would sometimes create a tritone, thus it used oblique motion to prevent the tritone
oblique motion
one line moves and the other stays the same
essentially a cadence; “a running together”- Guido discusses in Micrologus
winbchester troper
earliest text of written polyphony- comes from a Benedictine monastery at Winchester- 1000ce.- contains mainly tropes (see chapter 5)- not fully notated- a memory aid not for sight reading
aquitanian polyphony
from southern france; 65 pieces of 2part organum; has clarity but no rythmic distinction; easily readable
sustained-tone organum
the bottom voice holds a note while the faster moving top voice embellishes it
santiago (st. james) de compostela
after rome, 2nd most important pilgrimage site. Found in spain. It has a manuscript called Codex Calixtinus- written 1150- has a service for st. james with 20 polyphonic pieces for mass and vespers- no rhyhtmss only relative pitches- first manuscript to ascribe composer’s names to particular pieces- Master Albertus of Paris – earliest 3voice composition in western music “congaudeant catholici”
codex calixtinus
written 1150; has a service for st james with 20 polyphonic pieces for mass and vespers; no rhythms only relative pitches; first manuscript to ascribe composer’s names to particular pieces (master albertus of paris)
Master Albertus of Paris
earliest 3 voice composition in western music: “congaudeant catholici”
gothic architecture
“opus francigenum” – replaced romanseque; emerged in the 12th century
western end of the church; public part
east end of the church; included the high altar; group of singers performed there
Anonymous IV
wrote about the notre dame school; said leonin wrote Magner Liber Organi to make mass/canonical hours more “splendid,” that leoninus was succeeded by perotinus who edited it and made it more splendid, and that gothic polyphony was sung in notre dame since 1280
lenonius adorned thess parts of the mass b/c they were lengthy florid chants- solos and choral response. Pg 55- explains layout of the chant
organum purum
2-voice pieces by Leoninus- older sustained tone organum (pure organum)
style of music where both voices move at roughly the same rate and written in clearly defined rythms
section, phrase or musical clause
modal notation
new type of notation- began 1150-1170 evolved by 13th century to rhythmic modes- 6 different ones- six patterns of repeating rhythms (separate pattern for each)
substitute clausula
inserted into a preexisting organum by leoninus – a clausula written in discant style intended to replace another
perotinus the great
1160 – 1236; took rythmic innovations of leoninus and used them to create long, complex polyphonic works; 4 parts
guillaume de machaut
cantor of reims – important dude; wrote very advanced motets despite being a medieval composer
black death
bubonic plague – hit in 1348
hundred years war
1337-1453; france vs england
contrapuntal technique/musical genre; voices staggered by rests
formes fixe
“fixed forms”; secular songs and dances settings texts in french…preset styles, such as ballade, rondeau, virelai
song setting poem with 1-3 stanzas. AAB
ballade style
treble voice sings text, while other tenor/countertenor provide harmonic support; melody voice called CANTUS
two musical selections – ABaAabAB
AbbAbba – 2 sections plus textual refrain
cyclic mass
all of the movements of mass are linked together by common musical theme
contratenor bassus
bass line below tenor
contratenor altus
alto voice above tenor
renaissance Italy; center of music in Italy; not a republic, but ruled by despots from the d’Este family
Josquin des Prez
1450 – 1521; high-renaissance style of composing, and a master of it; used sogetto cavato in Missa Hercules Dux Ferrariae
sogetto cavato
“cut out” subject; cantus firmus extracted from the vowels of a name
penitential pasalms
7 psalms among the 150 that are super remorseful and sung in the rites for death/burial
recitation tone
constantly repeating pitch followed by a meditation
diminutive harpsichord possessing a single keyboard with the strings placed ar right angles to the keys- rested on table- modest size and sound—mostly played by young girls
Fitzwilliam Virginal Book
c. 1615 – collection of keyboard music
Variation technique
a procedure in which successive statements of a theme are changed or presented in altered surroundings
The Triumphes of Oriana
25 pieces written by thomas morley and 23 other madrigal composers – 1601
English Madrigal School
byrd, morley, weelkes, wilbye, gibbons – 1588-1627- the glory of the english renaissance (dumb)
consort song
voice accompanied by a group of independent instruments; usually a consort of viols; strophic
lute ayre
soloist accompanied by a lute and a bass instrument like the viola da gamba; strophic
concerto delle donne
ensemble of ladies; trio of singers, minor nobility originally but then replaced with middle-class cause nobility sucked
musica secreta (musica reservata)
concerts performed for duke/duchess; small number of guests; concerto delle donne; exclusive chamber music
Isabella d’Este
1474-1539- daughter of duke of ferrara- married son of Mantua in 1490- proficient musician and studied visual arts
Artusi-Monteverdi controversy
artusi didn’t like the counterpoint of monteverdi’s cruda amarilli and other madrigals. Wrote on the imperfections of modern music, going measure by measure pointing out proelms. In response, Monteverdi wrote in the preface of his 5th book of madrigals- says “harmony must be the servant of the words” called new text driven approach the seconda practica- distinguished from the prima practica (where composers follow rules of counterpoint regardless of the text)- big deal- unprepared dissonances (2nds, 4ths, tritons, and sevenths- w/o proper preparation)
comes from portugese (meaning ‘pearl’)- rough, bold sound in music- often excessive ornamentation
Age of Absolutism
king enjoys absolute power by reason of divine right
doctrine affections
different music moods can/should be used to influence emotions of listener
singing alone with accompaniment; opera
basso continuo
through bass- played by theorbo/lute or harpsichord
figured bass
numerical shorthand placed with bass line to tell the player which unwritten notes to fill in above the bass note
“work” – dramatic play set to music
text that conveys the story of opera- written in poetic verse
florentine camerata
society that gathered in home of count bardi- 1570s- prominent Florentines discussing lit, sci and arts. “Florentine club/circle”
stile rappresentativo
dramatic or theater style- vocal expression somewhere between song and speech.. i.e. beginnings of recitative
First true opera- Dafne- 1598
First completely preserved opera- Euridice- 1600
orpheus legends
tale of orfeo and euridice- powers of musical persuasion
le nuove musiche
the new music, 1602. A book published by caccini- explain a new method for singing ornaments- describes the vocal techniques that grace the monodiesle
“touched thing”- an instrumental piece, for keyboard or other instruments, requiring the perform to touch the instrument with a great technical dexterity
simple recitative (onlyl accompanied by basso continuo)
Arioso style
manner of singing halfway between recitative and full blown aria- fewer repeating pitches- more rhthmyically elastic than purely declarmatory recitative—but not song like and expansive as an aria
song- florid, expansive, melodious- rapid fire delivery with melismas
Strophic variation aria
an aria in which the same melodic/harmonic plan appears, with slight variation in each successive style
basilica of st mark
focus of spiritual and civic life- where the bones of Evangelist Mark are said to be buried
cori spezzati
“broken choirs” 2-4 choirs split and and placed in different parts of the building
stile concertato
concerted style- baroque music marked by a grand scale and strong contrast either between voices and instruments, separate music esembles, separate choral groups or even between soloist and choir
concerted motet
concerted style evident everywhere in the motet. Ex. In ecclesiis by gabrieli
concerted madrigal
concerted style – monteverdi
stile concitato
the agitated style- created by Monteverdi- “warlike music”-
“something sung”
chamber cantata
something sung for a select group of listeners in a private residence
basso ostinato
base line that insistenly repeats, obstinate stubborn and pigheaded
originally separate and distinct bass melodies- came to indiscrimnantly indicate almost any repreating bass pattern of short duration
lament bass
tetrachordal ostinato
chief of music at court- german equivalent of maestro di cappella (chapel master) – supervised selection and performance of singrs/instrumentalist- oversee the education and musical prep of the choir boys. Ex. Schutz 1615
Thirty-Years War
1618-1648- protestant v catholic
the Church;s aggressive response to the Protestant Reformation- purified the sanctuary by banning scular tunes and covering up nudity etc…
new religious order- established colleges to impart a sense of a true catholic life by means of edcatiion
Cappella pontificia sistina
papal Sistine chapel- home of this group is the Sistine chapel. The pope’s private vocal ensemble 17th century. Sang in stile antico.
stile antico
stile antico- ancient style- conservative music focused on prima practica
tenebrae service
darkness; singing of misrere
originated in spain and italy around 1480- at first an improvisatory technique used by church singers.. chanted along with the psalm tone to produce 4voice, root position chords—by the 17th century, psalm tone and root chords gone—now was a newly composed piece for 4-5 voices. Ex. Allegri’s Miserere
special, grand church that isn’t a cathedral (seat of a bishop).
colossal baroque
idio of large sclae multiple choir music for voices and instruments- concerted music but on crack
reverberation time
time it took the sound to die—large churches had long reverb time- so colossal baroque style music avoided quick harmonic changes
Alternarian technique
solo in place of the choral chant or polyphony- when the organ played alternate verses of the kyrie or Gloria
Fiori musicali
musical flowers- published by Frescobaldi in 1635- includes organ music for mass for most of the Sundays and feast days of the church year
Organ mass
a mass where an organ alternates w/ or entirely replaces the choir
instrumental work designed to show off the creative spirit of the composer as well as the technical skill of the performer
organ vercet
each independent organ section in an alternatim organ mass- a short piece that replaces a liturgical item otherwise sung by the choir
instrumental piece, usually for lute or keyboard, that is similar in style to the 16th c imitative motet- except sometimes monothematic
tonal answer
when introducing theme a 5th higher, changing the subject to keep it in home tonality
dramatic text- not opera b/c not in costume/sets- but the concept of recitiatve arioso and aria
prayer hall set aside just for praying preaching and devoational singing- where an oratorio was performed
fraternal order emphasizing erligious devotion and charity- each one supported an orartory
chamber cantata
cantata was performed for a select audience in a private residence
da capo aria
a formal arrangement- ABA form. Reprise of A not written out.
refrain- distinctive musical phrase that comes at the beginning of the aria and returns frequently thereafter
northern Italian town- crucial for the development of the violin. It is where Monteverdi is from. And born/lived great violin makers like Stradivari
Antonio Stradivari
c.1644-1737- great violin maker. Lived in Cremona. “Stradivarius”
da chiesa
of church- composers identified music as such
da camera
of the chamber
something to be sounded; piece for a single instrument or small instrumental
multiple stops
playing two or more notes simultaneously
solo sonata
comprised a line for a single melody instrument
trio sonata
two treble instruments (usually 2 violins) and a continuo
binary form
structure consisting of two or more complementary parts
walking bass
bass moving in a pace up and down
by 1700; used to designate a 3 movement instrumental overture; might preface an opera or mass
“sharp” – requires the performers to play in a detached fashion
clarino register
playing in the high register; a special technique of baroque trumpeters
during the last two decades of the 17th century- came to denote a purely instrumental piece for an ensemble in which one more soloists both complemented and competed with the orchestra
solo concerto
concerto for one solo instrument
a technically demanding, rhapsodic, improvisatory passage near the end of the movement- entered into the concerto in the early 18th century (see Vivaldi)
The Four Seasons
vivaldi; concertos
concerto grosso
larger body of performers, like the full orchestra, contrasts with a smaller group of soloists – large group is the ripieno and the small group of soloists is the concertino
ritornello form
“return” or “refrain”
dance suite
ordered set of dances for a solo instrument or ensemble – all written in the same key and intended to be performed in a single sitting
german; 4/4; stately moderate temp upbeat gracefully interweaving lines
lively dance; French metrical ambiguity; use of hemiola
slow stately dance in 3/4 with strong accent on the 2nd beat
fast dance in 6/8 or 12/8 with 8th note pulse – galloping sound; imitative; generally closed the suite
french dance; elegant; triple meter; moderate tempo;
fast dance in 4/4 or cut time- quarter note upbeat- usually followed a slow dance like the sarabande
French- moderate tempo, duple meter, 4 bar phrases
energetic dance. English origin. Derived form the country jig in either ? or 2/4
program music
some external influence/non musical event affects the composition
“mystery” or “rosary” sonatas
15 sonatas for solo violin and continuo that project through music the sacred devotion of the rosary
Italian meaning mistuning- tuning to something other than the standard tuning
hour long concert of sacred music w/ arias and reciatives- like an oratorio. A single religious theme
Choral prelude
work for organ that sets a Lutheran chorale tune, surrounging it w/ counterpoint and florid embellishment
ultimate power in the state rested in the hands of a king who claimed to rule by divine right
court of French king. Louis 14th
ballet de cour
court ballet- type of ballet dance at French court- roots of modern ballet-
air de cour
french solo song; simple strophic song for single voice or small group of solists
vingt-quatre violins du roi
24 instruments of the violin family- 6 violins, 12 violas, and six basse de violins (oversized cellos)- played 5 part music consisting of treble and bass as well as 3 middle parts played by the 12 violas split into groups of 4- other things could be added like harpsichords,trumpets, drums, and 12 great oboes
Academie roylae de musique
opera company directly licensed and indirectly financed by the king- performed at palais royal
Tragedie lyrique
distinctly French style of opera- Lully
lavishly choreographed diversionary interlude with occasional singing
French overture
distinctive type of instrumental prelude created by lully. Slow section in duple marked by dotted rhthyms- then fast triple meter in imitative counterpoint and a return to the slow stately beginning- eventually dropped the third to be only slow and dotted, then fast and fugal
Recitatif ordinaire
ordinary recitative- accompanied by continuo- noteworthy for length, vocal range and general dramatic quality
Cantate francaise
set a French text- but a cantata
style brise
broken style; discontinuous
unmeasured prelude
opening piece w/o indications for rhythmic duraion or metrical organization- no barlines rhtmucally free
the art of playing the harpsichord
a pedagogical manual inw chi Couperin leads the clavecin student through a discussion of fingering, ornamentation and other aspects of performance
Notes inegales
when a succession of equal notes move rapidly up and down sclae are played somewhat unequally long short long short
a dotted note is made longer than written, while cheating the complementary note
term used to describe the decorative arts and the music mid18th c france- lightness, grace and highly ornate
group of pieces loosely associated by feeling and key- like a suite
alternation of main thme w/ subsidiary sections(couplets)- to create AVACADAEAFA
westminster abbey
Benedictine monastery- provide venue for ceremonies of the state
elaborate courtly entertainment using music, dance and drama to portray an allegorical story that shed a favorable light on the royal family- similar to the ballet de cour
spoken play in which the more exotic, amorous or even supernatural moments in the story were sung or danced
ground bass
basso ostinato of purcell’s day- provided solid founation on which an entire composition could be built or grounded- repeating pattern- stubborn/pigheaded
multimovement composition usually lating about 20 minutes, containing an instrumental introduction, chrosuses, duets and a solo arias. No recitatitve because there is no drama/action to narrate- instead the movements offer successive lyrical praise to a member of the royal family
flat trumpet
slide trumpet- an early trombone- that played purcell’s funeral march for queen mary
dance suite
collection of dances all in a single key for one instrument or another-typically binary AB form
french horn
actually created in germany and bohemia (Czech republic)- but associated with the court of Louis XIV- no valves ,smaller bell=smaller sound
horn fifths
characterist musical figure where instruments slide back and forth through 6ths, 5ths, and 3rds- sometimes ornamenting along the way
royal academy of music
handel’s opera company- publicly held stock company for the production of Italian opera- 1719. Went bankrup twice
opera seria
serious opera- fully sung Italian opera- super elaborate and expensive- little action/drama on stafe and is reported by 3rd parties.. its all reaction- needed virtuosic singers= expensive
de capo aria
born in 17th century italy- large scale multimovement composition setting of a sacred text
pastoral aria
slow aria, with distinctive characteristics: parallel thirds in stepwise motion, lilthing rhythm in compound meter, and harmony that changes slowly that employs subdominant chords
collection of 46 pieces written mostly between 1708-1713- little organ book
choral prelude
ornamental setting of a pre-existing chorale tune intended to be played on the organ before the singing of the choral by the full congregation
group of similar sounding pipes on organ
wooden knob that activates a certain group of pipes
pedal point
continually repeated pitch, usually placed in the bass and sounding while the harmonies change around it
chief musician in the baroque/classical periods- not just of the chapel but of the entire court
two and part three inventions
1723- two sets of contrapuntal pieces- simple fugues
The Well-Tempered Clavier
collection of preludes and fugues by bach in 2 books- one from cothen 1720-1722 ad he other from Leipzig in the 1730s- each volume has 24 preludes and fugues arranged by key in ascending order
equal temperament
division of the octave into 12 equal half steps
picardy third
shift from minor to major using a bright sounding major triad
theme starts
each theme presents the subject
thematically distinctive material- moves in counterpoint to the bass
free section- based on motives derived from the subject
invertible counterpoint
motives change voices
contrapuntal composition for 2,34,5 voices which begins with a presentation of a subject in imitatation- exposiche, followed by free eupsides and a strong affirmation in thetonic key
obliged or mandatory- indicates that a composer has written a specific part for an instument and intens it to be played at written
synonym to suite
brandenberg concertos
6 of em- FFGGDBb
director of church music- bach was cantor in Leipzig
chorale cantata
sacred vocal genre that employs the text/tune of a pre-existing Lutheran choral in all or several of its movemnts
violino piccolo
small violin usually tuned a minor third higher than the normal violin
accompanied recitative
recitative that’s accompanied. Duh.
colla parte
with the part- instrumental parts double the vocal lines
musical depiction of christ’s crucifixion as recoreded in the gospels- performed on good Friday
collegium musicum
association of musicians (university students) – came together voluntarily to play the latest music before the public in a large cafe or beer hall
goldberg variations
virtuoisc set of 30 variationspreceded and concluded by a simple air- the air and each variation is based on the same 32 br harmonic pattern
the musical offering
trio sonata, 2 fufues and 10 puzzle canons- written in berlin
the art of fugue
collection of fugues and canons, all derived from the same subject- intended for keyboard- has every contrapuntal technique EVER
b-minor mass
bach’s last composition