1960’s Counterculture
Describes the culture that was associated with all of the “isms” in modernism. Mainly, an effort to break away from traditional thought and move towards ideas of self expression.
Ph.D. in Composition
This degree was first offered at Princeton University.
Chance Music
Leaving some of the decisions normally made by the composer to chance. Music simply is.
Composition 1960 #7
Composition by La Monte Young that consisted of the notes B and F#, both being held “for a long time.” Minimalism.
In C
Composition by Terry Riley that consisted of small musical segments. Played by instrumentalists in order. Example of Indeterminate music.
Popular Front
Policy of Communist parties, de-emphasizing their connection to Soviet politics—instead emphasize indigenous roots
Prepared Piano
A piano that has various objects inserted between the strings resulting in percussive sounds when the piano is played from the keyboard.
Square Root Form
A form of music where the number of measures in each unit is the square root of the total movement. Sonatas and Interludes, Sonata V.
Graphic Score
Associated with Morton Feldman’s Projection I. A score that gives general guidelines of timbre, pitch, rhythm, and duration.
A piece by John Cage that encourages audience to contemplate silence and ambient sound.
Synthesizers and Filters
These new instruments expanded the capability of compositions through electronic sound. Babbitt.
Musique Concrete
Music composed using natural recorded sounds. First introduced in French Radio by Pierre Schaeffer.
RCA Mark II Synthesizer
One of the first synthesizers developed at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center. It was used by several composers.
Birdsong & Messiaen
This composers was an ornithologist and used bird calls in his compositions. Ex: Quartet for the End of Time
Color & Talea
Repeated melodic pattern & Repeated rhythmic pattern. Associated with Messiaen.
Social Activism & Britten
This composers attempt to get a message out to audiences about how he felt towards the subjects of homosexuality, war, and pacifism.
12-Bar Blues
Form where the first stanza and the second stanza are completed in thought by the third stanza.
Call & Response
Alternating short phrases between the leader and the group. Incorporated into Jazz music.
New Orleans Jazz
Style of music where there is a group variation of a given tune. Originated in New Orleans.
Blues Scale
The scale used in blues with a flat 3 and 6.
Small Group/Combo Jazz
Type of chamber music Jazz with a Frontline, Rhythm Section.
International Composers Guild
Formed in an effort to nurture American ultra-modernism in a world where concerts where dominated by European music.
Schoenberg’s Treatise on Harmony
Schoenberg wrote this. It discussed new areas of music that were not considered “traditional.”
New Music Quarterly
The publication written by Cowell that promoted composers involved with modernism and ultra-modernism.
The “Roaring Twenties”
Age of social excess(decadence).
A technique used by Ives where the melody would be in one key, while the rhythms would be played in another key.
A term for music that avoids establishing a tonal center.
Concentration of political power in a very small ruling elite. Examples: Russian, Germany, Italy.
“Degenerate” Music
Any music that Hitler/Nazi’s did not feel promoted their “superior” race.
Union of Soviet Composers
Group that was formed after Stalin came to power. Focused on making simple music that portrayed social realism in a positive light and showed progress in Russia.
Diegetic Music vs. Nondiegetic Music
Associated with film music. Music meant to be heard or performed by the characters, and music that helps convey mood to the viewer.
A technique used in modernist works where the pitches are approximated in a speech-like manner by the singer.
Pierrot Ensemble
Singer and five performers to play nine different instruments. Unique instrumentation.
Religious songs of southern slaves that were passed down orally. They were incorporated into the music of composers.
Second Viennese School
Schoenberg and his students, Webern/Berg, who’s music and teachings moved towards the idea of atonality.
Used in Berg’s piece, Wozzeck, to indicate the rhythmic segment that represented Wozzeck’s guilt.
Rite of Spring Premiere
Riots as a result of the nontraditional “primitive”/harsh music in the Rite of Spring.
Recorded Sound
Brought to light by Thomas Edison in 1877, which influenced music.
Decorating a melody on the spot.
Style hongrois
The general “slang” term given to Hungarian music.
Magyar nota
The term given vocal songs of the Hungarian nobility
The term given to Hungarian instrumental music.
Magyar nepdalok
The term given to vocal songs of the Hungarian peasants.
New England Transcendentalism
The idea that a person can become educated by doing as opposed to getting formal training.
Tone Row
Contains the twelve pitch classes used in the twelve-tone method in different arrangements.