A bba A
Refrain (A) Stanza (bba) Refrain (A)
typically has 3 stanzas
“Foy porter”–Machaut
aab C
Stanza (aab) Refrain (C)
“Se la face ay pale”–DuFay
AB a A ab AB
Refrain (AB) Half Refrain (A) Refrain (AB)
“De plus en plus”–Binchois
“Rose, liz”–Machaut
tradition that exists in West from ~300-1963
entire rep memorized (Catholic)
unison unaccompanied song
syllabic chant
every syllable of text set to a note
“Dixit Dominus” from Vespers for Christmas Day–Anon.
neumatic chant
2-6 notes per syllable
Agnus Dei from Mass for Christmas Day–Anon.
melismastic chant
a chant that contains lots of melismas
Alleluia, “Pascha Nostrum”, Mass for Easter Day–Anon.
HUGE melisma on a single syllable
contained in Alleluia, “Pascha Nostrum” from Mass for Easter Day–Anon.
ritual of Catholic Church that celebrates Christ’s death and resurrection
most important service of the Catholic Church
contains ordinary and proper
Mass for Christmas Day–Anon.
series of prayers that mark times of the day
many chants sung at these rituals
“Tecum principum/Dixit Dominus” from Mass for Christmas Day–Anon.
recitation tone
single tone around which chant focuses
“Dixit Dominus” from Vespers for Christmas Day–Anon.
formula for how to sing long bits of text and come to punctuation
antiphonal chant
two choirs alternate singing verses
“Dixit Dominus” from Vespers for Christmas Day–Anon.
responsorial chant
cantor (soloist) sings, choir responds
Alleluia, “Pascha Nostrum”, Mass for Easter Day–Anon.
days which commemorate days in the life of Christ
Mass for Easter Day–Anon.
Vespers for Christmas Day–Anon.
fixed days which honor specific saints
new info added to preexisting text/composition, often to comment upon it
organum complex Alleluia, “Pascha Nostrum”–Leonin, Perotin, and others
“dawn song”
what the lookout sings while his friend is having a romantic affair
“Reis Glorios”–Giraut de Borneil
poet-composers in the S of France, 12th century
texts tended to talk about courtly love
Giraut de Borneil
parallel organum
homophonic, voices moving in parallel intervals (usually 5th)
organum from book Musica Enchiriadis
free organum
intervals not entirely parallel
start and end each phrase in unison
Alleluia, “Justus ed palma”
organum purum
drone underneath and new music/melismas over the top
notes in drone=orignial part of chant
Alleluia, “Pascha Nostrum” by Leonin, Perotin, and others
style of organum (12th-13th cent.) that includes rhythm in the upper and lower voice
lower voice still original chant
Alleluia, “Pascha Nostrum”–Leonin, Perotin, and others
discant without additional text
Alleluia, “Pascha Nostrum”–Leonin, Perotin, and others
discant with words added that are a gloss/commentary on original text
Alelluia, “Pascha Nostrum”–Leonin, Perotin, and others
a type of isorhythm that contains a repeating rhythmic unit
Kyrie from Messe de Nostre Dame–Machaut
a type of isorhythm that contains a repeating series of pitches
Kyrie from Messe de Nostre Dame–Machaut
Medieval and Renaissance “retirement plan”
often held in absentia
Leonin and Perotin held these in Paris vicinity
Machaut, DuFay, and Josquin also held them
basically the staff of an important Medieval/Renaissance person (king, duke, pope…)
included musicians/priests, instrumentalists, learned people, and courtiers
chapel took care of sacred things
entourage took care of secular things
Machaut, Dunstable, DuFay, Josquin, Palestrina, Monteverdi
Hundred Years War
French vs. English
English chapels present in France, lots of music trading going on
Dunstable’s “sweetness of the English style” quickly disseminated (less than 10 years!)
“Quam Pulchra Es”–Dunstable
Council of Constance
Catholic council called to decide on one pope
brought together ecclesiastical officials from all over
many singers/composers first heard English music
“Quam Pulchra Es”
composers who received training in N France and came down to work in Italian courts
15th century
Josquin and DuFay
cantus firmus
pre-existing melody drawn from chant or secular source
used as basis for polyphonic setting of mass cycle
15th cent.-mostly in tenor in prolonged notes
16th cent.-distributed to all voices equally
in Kyrie from Missa Pange Lingua–Josquin
mass cycle
polyphonic setting of ordinary of mass organized around single concept/scaffold/idea
Missa Se La Face Ay Pale–DuFay (every movement has cantus firmus from ballade of same name)
tenor mass
only the tenor has the cantus firmus in this mass
usually tenor has longer note values than other voices
Kryie from Missa Se La Face Ay Pale–DuFay
imitative point
phrase/motto repeated in all voices within texture
“Ave Maria…Virgo Serena”–Josquin
Odhecaton A
first fully printed book of music
published by Petrucci 1501
secular vocal/instrumental music of Josquin (“Adieu, mes amours”) and other composers
simple religious song sung by congregation in Protestant service (aka hymn)
originally monophonic, later polyphonic, simple forms
“Ein Feste Burg”–Luther
Council of Trent
Counter-Reformation reforms carried out here
abolished absentee benefices–>composers began to stay in their own countries
sacred music became “more intelligible”–>words drawn out into longer statements, turned to composers like Palestrina
abolished “seductive/impure” sources from sacred music (eliminated secular cantus firmus from mass and motet)
paraphrase mass
mass cycle that spreads cantus firmus through all voices
chant bit used at beginning of phrase, then free composition
Missa Pange Lingua–Josquin
parody/imitative mass
mass in which each movement is based on same polyphonic model (chanson or motet)
Missa O Magnum Mysterium–Victoria
secular polyphonic composition
16th cent. Italy or England
includes text painting
love, lust, nature
“As Vesta Was”–Weelkes
text painting
madrigal composers especially used this
music create sonic representation of words for effect
“As Vesta Was”–Weelkes
prima prattica
harmony more important than words
rules must be followed
Josquin’s masses/motets
Pope Marcellus Mass–Palestrina
secunda prattica
words more important than harmony
composer could break rules where words required it
“A un giro sol”–Monteverdi
vocal style w/ single voice over basso-continuo-like accompaniment
patterned after Greek style, Galilei promoted this
“Amarilla mia Bella”–Caccini
characteristics of both aria and recitative
possibly melisma, melodic repetition
can be emotional yet also deliver imp. plot points
Pastore speeches from L’Orfeo–Monteverdi
Academia della Invaghiti
collection of members of nobility in Mantua
discussed books/music/poetry b/c wanted to be cultured and knowledgeable
partially responsible for production of Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo
ensemble of instruments or voices w/ 1+ instruments, or a work for such an ensemble
generally has basso continuo support
“In Ecclesiis”–Gabrieli
cori spezzati
composition uses different divided groups and puts them in differing spaces
Vespro della Beate Virgina–Monteverdi
used in 15th and 16th century
choir freeform chanting while sitting on one chord
comes to a cadence
“Dixit Dominus” from Vespro della Beate Virgine–Monteverdi