song cycle
set of poems set to music – unified musically and textually
johann wolfgang von goethe
famous german poet and dramatist
one of schumann’s characters representing his contradictory personalities, which he wrote about in Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik, music is mercurial (rapidly changing moods)
opera excerpts in concert
popular opera excerpts were performed in mixed genre concerts, popular opera excerpts were also arranged for solo piano and vocal/piano reductions
rossini crescendo
continually adding instruments to add dynamics
name three verdi operas
La Traviata, Macbeth, Rigoletto
jacob and wilhelm grimm
wrote Grimm’s fairy tales, many of their stories became inspiration for music works, german nationalist gestures in medieval history, legend, supernatural/magic, Hansel und Gretel
total art music, wrote libretto, music, set, and the opera house was built under his supervision
idee fixe
recurring musical obsession or theme (french) – harriet’s theme in symphonie fantastique
opera lyrique
new French opera sub-genre, grew out of opera comiques but main appeal is through melody, plots are usually romantic drama or fantasy and medium-scaled (Bizet’s Carmen)
program music
instrumental music associated with poetic, descriptive or narrative subjects
harriet smithson
Berlioz discovered her performing the roles of Juliet and Ophelia and immediately fell in love with her and was his 1st wife, inspiration for his Symphonie Fantastique
friedrich wieck
father of Clara Wieck Schumann, didn’t approve of marriage to Robert because it would hurt her performance career, he was also a piano/voice teacher, piano firm owner/music reviewer
changes in politics
celebration of the common folk, emperor napoleon crowned his own head, members of third estate (regulars) stood together in opposition to the king (David “Oath of the Tennis Court,” Germany was loose and disunited
changes in patronage
patronage wanes, middle class supports public and private sphere concerts, public concerts are a mixed genres
changes in women’s roles
women were still expected to stay in private sphere
advances in instrument technology
auxiliary instruments and new tone color palettes for composers (Sym Fantastique) and pianos are more affordable and popular in home and amateur music making (piano was better, sax, contrabassoon, tuba, etc)
new markets for music
lied/character pieces vs. big symphonies/operas
small forms – rise of intimate concerts in the home, pianos more affordable, more amateurs present through the rise of middle class who could afford pianos/sheet music. large forms – rise of public concerts supported by a larger middle class who could pay for tickets, no patronage
berlioz’s instrumentation in symphonie fantastique
clara schumann’s career
father raised her to be virtuosic piano soloist, had several children but she still made music on side, promoted Robert’s works but believed women could not compose as well, Robert died and she had to support children by performing husband’s music
rossini’s scene structure
1. instrumental intro, 2. Recitative w/orchestra 3. catabile (slow section) 4. Tempo di mezzo (middle section) 5. Cabaletta (final section of the aria repeated w/embellishments) 6. finale
italian opera
central experience (w/france) and proud, 40 opera premieres at La Scala Opera House in 1830’s, Rossini was most famous opera composer in Europe (scene structure and crescendo)
how is brahms neoclassicist
wrote in traditional forms, wrote pure music rather than program music, Brahms did not utilize all of now tone colors w/auxiliary instruments,
brahms instrumentation vs. berlioz instrumentation
brahms doubled lower voices, berlioz used high winds for tone color and 100 players
why do amy beach’s compositions sound like berlioz/brahms
she translated Berlioz’s treatise on instrumentation, after playing Brahm’s Piano Quintet, she wrote one herself that some of Brahms’ themes
Gretch am Spinnrade
Schubert, D. 118, 16th notes sound like spinning wheel, text by Goethe from Faust
Schubert, d.911 no.5 from cycle of 24 poems by Muller set to music, horn calls evoke the outdoors and nature setting
Robert Schumann, op. 9, no. 5-7 “Eusebius,” “Florestan,” “Coquette,” Schumann created characters to represent his contradictory personalities, subdivisions of 7’s and 5’s rubato (not awkward)
Chopin, op. 7, no.1 polish couple dance in triple meter accents beats 2 or 3, aug 2nds represent exoticism
Symphonie Fantastique
Berlioz, Fifth mvt “Dream of a Witches’ Sabbath” inspired by infatuation with Harriet Smithson, over 100 in the orchestra
Piano Trio
Clara Schumann, op. 17 Third Movement, andante, accepted belief that women were incapable of greatness as composers, 4 mvts instead of typical 3 mvt form
Il Barbiere Di Siviglia
Rossini, Act I No. 7, Una Voce Poco Fa, standard structure for solo scenes in opera, rossini crescendo
La Traviata
Verdi, Act III, scene and duet – follows the common duet structure developed by Rossini, Violetta’s desperation illustrated in plodding rhythms and quickly changing dynamics
Der Freischutz
Weber, Act II, Finale “Wolf’s Glen Scene”, Tritone relationships represent the devil (samiel), devil only speaks (singspiel) Hildegard de Binged Ordo Virtutum
Tristan und Isolde
Wagner, Act 1 Scene 5, gesamtkunstwerk, leitmotives (motives linked to a particular person place or thing)
Bizet, Act 1 no. 10, Seguidilla and duet, Takes place in Spain (French romantic interest with exotic locations), not soprano but mezzo
Boris Godunov
Mussorgsky, coronation scene, Plot has elements of historical Russian events, coronation scene opens with two V7 chords tritone apart
Symphony No. 4 (op?)
Brahms, op. 98, fourth movement, allegro energico e passionato, developing 31 variations (modeled after baroque form – repeating bass line in triple meter), finale section is a chaconne or passacaglia
Quintet for piano and strings (op?)
Brahms, op 34 I, developing variations, may have been modeled after schubert’s quintet in C major
Piano quintet (op.?)
Beach, op. 67, third mvt. allegro agitato, themes of 1st and 3rd mvts sound similar to 2nd theme of last mvt of Brahms’ piano quintet, modified sonata form – the development stays mostly in tonic key (no development?)
Don Quixote op?
Strauss, op. 35, themes and variations 1 and 2, instrumental dramatization (tone poem) of Cervantes’ novel, Klangfarbenmelodie – melody of tone colors created by instruments dropping in and out of the texture
new genre emerged in the romantic period, written for solo singer and piano accompaniment
character piece
short pieces for piano that had titles such as nocturne, intermezzo or polonaise
program music
instrumental music associated with poetic, descriptive, or narrative subjects
german opera
interaction between music and literature is strongest in German opera, strong nationalist, medieval legend/supernatural, roots in singspiel, goethe
french opera
no dominant opera composer but was center for opera productions, not as stylish as Italy, not nationalist plots, infatuated w/exotic places, 2 types: grand opera (ballet, spectacle)/opera lyrique
russian opera
Realism like russian literature, historical russian events, lead male is baritone (Boris Gudunov), folksong-like, narrow vocal range, modal/non-diatonic harmonization
motives linked to a certain person, place or thing throughout the opera (wagner)