The Enlightenment
An intellectual movement that applied reason to issues of emotions, social relations, and politics. 
Enlightenment Beliefs

Individual Rights

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Universal Education

Social Equality

Changes in Middle Class Pre-Classical

Larger middle class, public concerts, more music in the home, more private lessons


New Goals of mid and late 18th century music

1. Avoid contrapuntal complexity

2. Melodies with short phrases and simple accompanies

3. International Language

4. Appeal to all tastes

5. Natural sounding and immediately pleasing



Galant Style

1. Melodies from repeated motives and short phrases

2. Combine phrases into larger periods

3. Simple harmonies with frequent cadences

Empfindsam Style

-Originated in Italy

– Associated with CPE Bach

– Surprising turns in harmony, chromaticism, speechlike melodies

Classical Style

– Mozart and Haydn

– analogy to Greek and Roman art

– 1730 to 1815

Christoph Koch
Wrote Versuch einer Anleitung zur Composition, which applied principles of rhetoric and grammar to music. Sentences like periods of a melody… etc.
Harmony of the Classical
– A hierarchy of cadences developed, with the strongest marking the end of a period, section, or movement. 
Affect of Classical

– moods were allowed to change

– multiple affects within a section

Opera Buffa

– aka comic opera

– full-length work, sung throughout

– six+ characters

– charicatured aristocrats and commoners

– used stock characters from the commedia dell’arte

– dialogue set to rapidly delivered recitative

Opera Buffa Arias

– Uses short tuneful phrases

– da capo form


– short, comic musical interlude between acts of a serious opera or play.;

– plots typically are comedies involving ordinary people, sometimes parodying excess of serious operas.;

– usually have only 2 singing roles, one of which is bass.

– music alternates between recitative and refrain

La serva padrona

Intermezzo by Giovanni Battista Pergolesi with three characters questioning the social hierarchy