In what decade did the Rococo musical style primarily reside?
When does the Classic era start and end?
Who was Immanuel Kant?
A German philosopher from the Age of Enlightenment
Which philosopher of the enlightenment said something along these lines? (1690)

o “A contract exists between the government and the governed”
o “If government violates this contract, the governed can rebel”

John Locke
Who was the leader of French thinkers during the Enlightenment?
Who were the Freemasons?
Fraternal organization that promoted the idea that “all men are brothers”
Name three distinct members of the Freemasons.
o Emperor Joseph II of Austria
o Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
o George Washington
Who established the University of Virginia?
Thomas Jefferson
Which two wars sent France into bankruptcy?
The Seven Years’ War and the French and Indian War
Who were Europe’s enlightened rulers, and which countries did they rule?
– Frederick the Great – Prussia
– Catharine the Great – Russia
– Joseph II – Austria
How did Emperor Joseph II reduce the power of the clergy?
o Made clergy lose civil legal power
o Marriage became a civil legal arrangement
o Required clergy to attend seminaries and swear allegiance to the Emperor
Where was the musical center of Europe in the 1780s and 90s?
Vienna, Austria
By 1800, what were the primary musical forum in all major European cities?
Public concerts
What family did Haydn work for most of his life?
The Esterhazys
What were some general characteristics of the Classic era?
– Balance and proportion
– Clarity and accessibility
– “Easy on the ear”
– Beautiful, moving and profound
– Appeal to experienced listeners and amateurs alike
– Melody and accompaniment
– Light and simple
What were some SPECIFIC characteristics of the music of the Classic era?
– Rhythm – highly flexible
– Dynamics – Wide variety, composers specify p, mp, mf, f
– Idea of crescendo and decrescendo come into general use
– Fortepiano and Pianoforte supplant the Harpsichord as the keyboard of choice, due to said instruments having a wider range
– Melody – takes on great importance
o Melodies have a pleasing quality to them
o Audiences can now “hum the tunes”
– Phrases – balanced, usually 2 or 4 bars long
– Harmony – generally simple, logical and clear
o Straightforward harmonic accompaniment
o Little counterpoint
o Simple Bass line provides the foundation for the chord
o Baroque basso continuo is gone
Describe the basic instrumentation of the Classical orchestra.
– Strings (violin 1 and 2, viola, cello, double bass)
– Woodwinds (flute, oboe, bassoon) and French Horns in pairs
harmonic rhythm
how quickly chords change
Name one of Mozart’s opera serias.
La Clemenza di Tito
While instrumental music was theorized to appeal to the heart, vocal music was said to appeal to the:
heart and mind
In what ways did Gluck work for change in opera?
– No da capo arias
– Little/no vocal improvisation
– No long melismas
– Syllabic text settings
– Blurring recitative and aria
o Accompanied recitative
– Simpler melodies
– Overture linked by theme/mood to the ensuing action
– More prominence of the chorus
What was the name of Mozart’s librettist?
Lorenzo da Ponte
How many movements did the standard Classical concerto have?
Describe the movements of the standard classical concerto.
1st Fast Sonata Tonic
2nd Slow Theme and Variations or Aria Dominant, Subdominant, relative minor
3rd Very fast Minuet and Trio
What was Mozart’s first official job?
Junior composer under the Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg
What was the name of Mozart’s wife?
Constanze Weber
social critics
“enlightened” absolutism
in which a powerful ruler exercises restraint and works constantly for the good of the whole
What three revolutions were occurring around the time of the Classical era?
American, French, and Industrial
a search for themes, often opening with rhapsodic, quasi-improvisatory flourishes on the triad
rollicking and boisterous; always in triple meter and almost always consists of two juxtaposed binary forms
In what forms are finales most common?
Sonata and rondo
a type of movement associated largely with finales and found in many different instrumental genres; derived from a Baroque dance form (ABACADA)
– opening theme is typically brief and catchy
– closed, self-contained unit consisting of an antecedent and consequent phrase with a cadence in the tonic
open, reoccurring idea
contrasting ideas in rondo form
Sonata-rondo form
A(I) B(V) A(I) C(X) A(I) B(I) A(I)
cadence on the tonic
What kind of sonata form did Haydn employ?
Sonata form with varied reprise – exposition is not repeated note for note, but is instead changed in subtle ways
Italian overture
three movement symphony
Describe the movements of the standard Classical symphony.
– 1st movement: weightiest of the four and sets tone; sonata form w/ slow intro sometimes
– 2nd movement: slow; sonata form, sonata form w/o development, theme and variations, aria; usually in a key other than the tonic, most commonly the subdominant
– 3rd movement: Minuet; “dance inspired”
– 4th movement: finale, relatively light; sonata, rondo, sonata-rondo
Describe the double-exposition concerto form.
– Tutti exposition (tonic)
– Solo exposition (tonic?secondary)
– Development (unstable)
– Recapitulation (tonic)
– Cadenza & coda (tonic)
Mozart’s music in general is renowned for its abundance of thematic ideas, while Haydn tends to develop a smaller number of ideas more thoroughly.
cool story
a work intended for performance between the acts of a larger (serious) opera
What form does the first movement of a symphony employ the most?
sonata form
a big formal pause for the soloist to improvise and display their virtuosity becomes formalized. It occurs shortly before the end of the first movement.
Chamber music was written with ________ musicians in mind.
Describe Nature vs Art
Nature: Art:
Genius Technique
Inspiration Craft
Unconscious Conscious
Effortlessness Hard work
Divine Human
Not teachable Teachable
What kind of musical form was the sonata?