In what ways did Nationalism enter music in the 19th Century?

1. A nation’s revival of its own;folk song and the absorption of that folk song into the art music being composed, such as in Germany early in the century.

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2. A composer’s use of a national element as an accessory to a basically cosmopolitan style or form of music (e.g. Liszt’s rhapsodies on Hungarian gypsy tunes)

3. A composer’s use of national elements as subjects for and as basic features of a composition (e.g. Glinka’s A Life for the Tsar’)

Who wrote the first worthwhile Russian music in A Life for the Tsar?
Mikhail Glinka
What four things did Dargomizhsky do that influenced Russian music?

1. He sought to escape the bonds of key tonality and wrote with no key signatures.

2. He used some whole tone scales and harmonizations.

3. He used unusual modulatons & radical harmonies.

4. He stayed away from Italianate recitative and French phrases are minimal.

Who were the “moguchaya kuchka” (mighty handful or powerful fishful)?

1. Mily Balakirev

2. Cesar Cui

3. Modest Musorgsky

4. Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov

5. Alexander Borodin

Who was the leader of the “moguchaya kuchka” (mighty handful or powerful fistful)?
Mily Balakirev
Who was considered the most talented of the “moguchaya kuchka” (mighty handful or powerful fistful)?
Modest Musorgsky
What landmark opera did Modest Musorgsky compose?
Boris Godunov
Who wrote a textbook on orchestration and taught Glazounov and Stravinsky?
Nokilai Rimsky-Korsakov
Who pioneered nationalistic music in Czechoslovakia?
Bedrich Smetana
What is Bedrich Smenata’s famous cycle of symphonic poems?
Who made Bohemian composers known internationally?
Antonin Dvorak
What three contributions did Janacek make to music?

1. His organ school and his curriculum laid the foundation for Brno Conservatory.

2. Collected, edited and published Moravian folk songs which stimulated folk song;research by other composers.

3. ;He wrote excellent music which incorporated folk song.

List six Scandinavian composers and their respective countries of origin.

1. Johan A. Soderman – Sweden

2. Hugo Alfven – Sweden

3. Ole Bull – Norway

4. Richard Nordraak – Norway

5. Edvard Hagerup Grieg – Norway

6. Carl Nielsen – Denmark

List four Spanish composers who are famous for their zarzuelas.

1. Francisco Barbieri

2. Frederico Chueca

3. Ruperto Chapi

4. Tomas Breton

What two Spanish concert pianists achieved international recognition for their compositions?

1. Enrique Granados

2. Isaac Albeniz

Choose one composer from Wales, Ireland, Scotland or England and give his main genre of composition or his most famous pieces.

Joseph Parry – Wales

Aberystwyth – 400 hymn tunes

What American influence appears in Cadman’s music?
American Indian music appears in almost all of his works.
What were the several influences on Farwell’s compositions?

1.;Spanish-American music

2. African-American music

3. Cowboy tunes

4. American poets (he set their poems)

5. Native American music

List the different genre;options composers had in the late 19th Century.

1. Conservatism

2. Post-Romanticism

3. Nationalism

4. Impressionism

What characteristics of Tchaikovsky’s music are his most memorable to you?

1. His frequent use of pizzicati

2. His freedom with melody

Why is Rachmaninov NOT comsidered to be a nationalistic composer?

His music was written in the Western tradition.


(At this time, in Russia, composers were attempting to purge their compositions of any Western influences, therefore, his music in not nationalistic.)

What characteristics of Scriabin’s writing is distinctive to you?
I find it interesting that he went from writing in very difficult, unusual;keys to writing in no key at all.
What three Austro-Germanic composers are linked with the Lied?

1. Hugo Wolf

2. Gustav Mahler

3. Richard Strauss

Which two Austro-Germanic composers are remembered for their symphonic writing?

1. Gustav Mahler

2. Richard Strauss

What Austro-Germanic composer is remembered for his tone poems and operas?
Richard Strauss
Who is remembered for the revival of fairy-tale opera?
Engelbert Humberdink
Who was the leading Italian composer of verismo opera?
Giacomo Puccini
In France, the traditional cosmopolitan European composers were whom? (name 2)

1. Cesar Frank

2. Vincent D’Indy

In France, the strictly French style composers were whom? (name 2)

1. Camille Saint-Saens

2. Gabriel Faure

In France, the music followers of the French symbolist poets were whom? (Impressionism) (name 2)

1. Claude Debussy

2. Maurice Ravel

List eight characteristics of Impressionistic music.

1. Irregular phrases and blurring of outline.

2. Avoidance of traditional harmonic progressions.

3. Use of stream chords in parallel motion.

4. Altered chords with unresolved dissonances.

5. Choice of instruments for their colouristic possibilities.

6. Though tonal, modality often appears.

7. The leading tone is surpressed.

8. Attempt to create an atmosphere. To suggest, rather than define.

List the six French composers associated with Satie.


1. George Auric

2. Louis Durey

3. Arthur Honegger

4. Darius Milhaud

5. Francis Poulenc

6. Germaine Tailleferre

List five composers who were active in Great Britain from 1860-1920.

1. Ralf Vaughn Williams

2. Gustavus Holst

3. Edward Elgar

4. Ethel Smyth

5. Frederick Delius


Name the two most important American composers from the end of the 19th century.

1. James Knowles Paine

2. Edward MacDowell

What happened in Boston in the 1890’s that is important to music and composition?
The city not only accepted the rights of women, they encouradged women to compose and conduct.
What individualistic, innovative;American composer was an insurance salesman, and wrote for his own pleasure?
Charles Edward Ives
Who named and used tone clusters, used chance in composing, and was the first to use the interior of the piano and to place objects on the strings to create new sounds?
Henry Cowell
List the many factors that led to and developed the idiom of jazz.

1. Spirituals

2. Gospel

3. Secular songs dealing with personal situations and feelings

4. Blues

5. Cakewalk

6. Ragtime

7. Call ; response

8. Complex polyrhythms of the African tribal music

When, where and with whom did New Orleans jazz reach its peak?
c.;1925, New Orleans, Louis Armstrong ; his “Hot Five”
Which three musician/composers carried out scholarly research on central European folk music in the era around the two World Wars?

1. Leos Janacek

2. Bela Bartok

3. Zoltan Kodaly

What is the title of Bartok’s method of teaching piano?
Which two composers created methods of music education for children?

1. Zoltan Kodaly

2. Carl Orff

Whose nine symphonies established him as a primary English composer?
Ralf Vaughn Williams
The operas of what two composers brought English opera to importance?

1. Ralf Vaughn Williams

2. Benjamin Britten

List the four most important Russian composers from 1917-1945.

1. Dmitri Shostakavich

2. Sergei Prokofiev

3. Aram Khachaturian

4. Dmitri Kabalefsky

How did the Soviet government influence the music composed by Shostakovich, Prokofiev, Khachaturian & Kabalevsky?
The Soviet government resolved that all music should be Socialistic and easily understood by the masses. Use of folk material and expression of “national feelings” was encouraged. Western music was banned and modern techniques were prohibited.
Define Expressionism in music

1. Expression of inner feelings

2. Creation of atonal/pantonal works in which the music is abstract and intense

3. Traditionl harmony and formal patterns are distorted or ignored.

What three important composers were in the “Second Viennese School”?

1. Arnold Schoenberg

2. Alban Berg

3. Anton Webern

Define dodecaphony.
An atonal or pantonal style of composition in which all 12 chromatic pitches are reguarded as equal and do not have any special function.
Define serialism.
A prearranged order in which the 12 chromatic pitches are to be used, thus establishing a series or a tone row. The pitches are to be used in the specific order in which they fall in the row, but octave displacement is alright. Any two or more sucessive pitches can be combined to create harmonies and all pitches can be transposed to any step of the chromatic scale, making 48 possibilities. These possibilities are placed on a matrix, allowing the composer to see all possibilities.
How did Berg modify Schoenberg’s principles?
Berg never completly relinquished Romanticism and tonality. He did not adhear to a single tone;row for an entire composition; often, he combined tonal and non-tonal elements in a piece.
How did Webern use Schoenberg’s principles?
Webern was a strict serialist. He used one tone row per movement, wrote highly ordered counterpoint that was concentrated in extremely compressed forms. Some of his compositions are even pointillistic.
Who was the most important Spanish composer in the chapter?
Manuel de Falla
What are the characteristics of Neoclassicism?

1. Absolute music

2. Greater emphasis on counterpoint

3. Economy of performing resources

4. Revival of 18th century traditional forms

Name two important Neoclassic composers.

1. Paul Hindemith

2. Igor Stravinsky

What characteristics are found in the writing of Honegger?
Mainly stage music, dramatic works often with demanding speaking and singing roles that include unusual vocal techniques.
What characteristics are found in the writing of Poulenc?
He was a master of the melodic and wrote religious choral music
What characteristics are found in the writing of Milhaud?
Lyrical melodies, formal charity, skilful use of counterpoint & bitonality or polytonality.
List four belifs that influenced Hindemith’s writing.

1. Music should be understood as a means of communication between composer and the consumer or music.

2. A composer must be a performing musician and must have a thorough understanding of the instruments for which he is writing.

3. Considered key tonality unavoiabible and thus specifically wrote tonal music.

4. He endorsed the theories expressed in the writings of Plato, Ptolemy, Boethius and other ancient writers.(Music of the Spheres)

What was Stravinsky’s approach to tonality?
He never fully abandoned tonality, but he experimented with modality, bitonality, polytonality & dodecaphony.
How did Stravinsky treat rhythm?
He based it on the consistency of a minimum value and used multiples of that value.
Who was the most important teacher of composition in this chapter?
Nadia Boulanger
What American student of Nadia Boulanger created a truly American sound in his writing?
Aaron Copeland
What popular songwriter introduced jazz and blues elements into American art music?
George Gershwin
What African-American composer in known for writing large scale works during his time?
W.G. Still
List three major Latin American composers between the World Wars, and their country of origin.

1. Heiton Villa-Lobos – Brazil

2. Alberto Ginastera – Argentina

3. Carlos Chavez