An important model for the success of a heroic personality in political life at the turn of the nineteenth century was…
Napoleon Bonaparte
Beethoven’s middle period is sometimes known as his…
Heroic Period
The Heiligenstadt Testament was…
Beethoven’s reflection on his deafness and his vocation
The poet who wrote the text Beethoven used in his Ninth Symphony was…
Friedrich Schiller
Two important examples of the _________________________ are An die ferne Geliebte and Die schone Mullerin.
Song cycle
_________ combined the folk ideal in song with personal interpretation of the song text
Franz Schubert
_________________________ was idealized by early Romantic opera librettists because he provided a model of a great artist who succeeded despite his disregard for standard rules of artistic form
William Shakespeare
Italian opera composers in the early nineteenth century often used the process of _________________________ to recycle their music in order to keep up with the demand for new works.
The rescue opera was created in _________________________ around 1800.
_________________________ never achieved much public acclaim and relied for his daily living on the generosity of his friends.
A style that is romance-like and novelistic, concentrating on emotional conflict and climax.
Who claimed that Beethoven’s music aroused “that infinite yearning that is the essence of romanticism”?
E.T.A. Hoffman
Rescue opera
Popular in post-revolutionary France; focused on tyranny and freedom, personal strength, and heroism.
Beethoven’s only opera. Was an example of a “rescue opera.”
Character variations
Variations which do not merely decorate the theme but seem to take on different expressive content or personalities.
Second Berlin School
Produced some of the most successful composers of lieder. Based style on simplicity and the intention to let poetry speak clearly for itself. Also used folk tunes.
Karl Friedrich Zelter
Composer and music director; leader of the second Berlin School
Alternative to the lied. Text was narrative and dramatic, and poetic rhythm was generally irregular. Typically through-composed.
Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg
Leading composer of the ballad genre.