melody without harmony or counterpoint


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most of the earliest forms of music were either monophonic or heterophonic


simultaneous performance of a melody in different ways by two or more parts


most of the earliest forms of music were either monophonic or heterophonic

Ancient Greek music [3]

1.) Almost no written music survived.

2.) Was mostly either monophonic or heterophonic.

3.) Was almost entirely improvised.

Epitaph of Seikilos

a brief song from about the 1st Century C.E. found inscribed on a tombstone


one of the earliest forms of written music known to man


ancient instrument with five to seven plucked strings


was an instrument of Apollo (noble instrument)


ancient instrument that was a larger version of the lyre


was an intrument of Apollo (noble instrument)


ancient reeded instrument that came in two forms: the single reed and the double reed


was an intsrument of Dionysus (party instrument)

doctrine of ethos [2]

ancient Greek belief that:


1.) Music affects behavior.

2.) Music has the same affects on different people.

theory of imitation

proposed by Aristotle in the Politics and states that one can change someone’s behavior by making them listen to certain types of music


this theory was used to try and ;cure; those who broke the law or were deemed insane

Aristotle [3]

1.) Ancient Greek philosopher.


2.) Proposed the theory of imitation in the Politics.


3.) Believed music could be used for amusement, education, and medical treatment.

Plato [3]

1.) Ancient Greek philosopher.


2.) Proposed that music and athletics should be equally balanced;subjects of;education in his Republic.


3.) Believed that the Dorian and Phrygian church modes fostered temperance and courage, and all of the other modes fostered poor manners and anarchy.


in ancient Greek theory, a scale of four notes each a fourth apart; three kinds (diatonic, chromatic, enharmonic)


in ancient Greek theory, the church modes were determined by tetrachords

Pythagoras [2]

1.) Ancient Greek mathmatician.


2.) Discovered that two stings with a 2:1 ratio in length resulted in an octave, that a 3:2 ratio creates a fifth, and that a 4:3 ratio creates a fourth.


study of matters concerning pitch


laid the foundation for modern concepts such as notes, intervals, scales, and modes

St. Augustine

writes in his Confessions that he thought he was sinning when he enjoyed the music more than the words in a church service

Ancient Rome
contributed little to nothing to music history
De institutione musica

(translated;The Fundimentals of Music)


written by Boethius


divides music into three types (musica mundana, musica humana, musica instrumentalis)

musica mundana

inaudible music that controlled planetary movement, the changing of the seasons, and the combination of elements;


the most important type of music proposed by Boethius

musica humana

inaudible music within the human body that unifies that body and the soul and keeps that person sane


the 2nd most important type of music proposed by Boethius

musica instrumentalis

audible music produced by both voices and instruments


the;least important type of music proposed by Boethius

The Marriage of Mercury and Philology
treatise from the early 5th Century written by Martianus Capella that discussed the seven liberal arts
trivium [3]

the three verbal liberal arts


1.) grammar

2.) dialectic (logic)

3.) rhetoric

quadrivium [4]

the four mathematical liberal arts


1.) geometry

2.) arithmetic

3.) astronomy

4.) harmonics

Gregorian chant



pure monophonic melody sung in one voice, regardless of how many are singing


oldest form of;praise music