Greek Philosopher. Recommended the ideal state be founded on suitable types of music and warn against the unsettling effects of musical innovation.
Greek Philosopher. Theory of imitation, explained how music affects behavior: recommended temperance in musical exposure and training.
Greek Phil. Discovered mathematical relationships between notes, harmonic overtone series.
Ancient Greek. Larger counterpart to Lyre. 5-7 strings that were plucked.
Ancient Greek. Single- or double-reed instrument used in the worship of Dionysus.
Ethos, and doctrine of.
Moral and ethical character/behaviour. Character or mood of a certain tetrachord, chord, or scale.
Doctrine: a writing by Aristotle noting the benefits and dangers of musical education.
Scale fragments spanning a fourth. There are three genera of tetrachord: diatonic, chromatic, and enharmonic. The outer two notes were clearly defined, while the inner two had a less defined pitch, depending on the context.
Diatonic Tetrachord
Top two intervals whole tone, bottom a semitone.
Ex: E D C B.
Chromatic Tetrachord
Top interval a minor third, lower two intervals a pyknon (dense region) of semitones.
Enharmonic Tetrachord
Top interval a minor third, lower pyknon denser than semi-tones, possibly quarter tones.
Premier authority on music in the middle ages. Wrote De institutione musica, the Fundamentals of Music.
Boethius’ term for the “four paths” of the mathematical disciplines: geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, and harmonics.
De institutione musica
A compilation of all knowledge of musical composition prior to Boethius’ time. Contained formulas for the intervals between notes, generating scales and tuning.
Musica mundana
A term used in De inst. mus. to describe the music of the relation between the earth and stars.
Musica humana
A term used in De inst. mus. to describe the music unifying the human body.
Musica instrumentalis
“Traditional” music (compared to mundana and humana)
Sacred poems set to music.
Chant dialect: Gallican
Chant dialect: Mozarabic
Chant dialect: Ambrosian
Gregorian Chant
Repertoire of melodies sung by Frankish monks and nuns, transmitted in their writings. Codified by Pope Gregory II.
A second vocal or instrumental line, holding a single note for long durations. From verb “tenere”, to hold.
The sacred repertory, later Gregorian chant, created for ceremonial use and a principle element in the communal liturgy.
Worship service. Includes any music, text, or actions.
The Office
The prayer services practiced by members of religious community throughout the day.
The Mass
The most important service of the Catholic Church. Text are read, songs are song, the Last Supper is reenacted.
Proper of the Mass
Varied text depending on time of year.
Ordinary of the Mass
Absolute text, unchanged throughout the year. Includes the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei.
Oral Transmission
Music passed down from generation to generation by word of mouth, rather than writing or recording.
Antiphonal Chant
Form of chant involving two separate choruses, each alternating a line of the chant.
Responsorial Chant
Chant alternating between a single cantor and the congregation.
Direct Chant
Entire chant sung by chorus.
Syllabic Chant
Opposite of melismatic, generally one syllable per note.
Neumatic Chant
Midway between syllabic and melismatic chant.
Melismatic chant
Extended lines consisting of many notes per syllable.
Psalm tones
One of the eight melodies used for singing psalms.
Antiphonal psalmody
Half verses alternate between two choirs, adopted early in the history of the Christian Church
Alterations and inserts made in existing chants, new texts, melismas, or both added.
Tropes of the Alleluia that became independent compositions.
Liturgical dramas
Plays consisting of chants, conveying a religious message.
Hildegard of Bingen
Composer, abbess of her own convent in Bingen, 1150.
Church Modes
Dorian, Hypodorian, Phrygian, Hypophrygian, Lydian, Hypolydian, Mixolydian, Hypomixolydian.
Finalis (modal)
Essentially tonic, final notes of a chant. Determines mode.
Authentic modes
Place finalis on outer bounds of scale.
Plagal Modes
Place finalis in center of mode. (Hypo)
Solfege of early Church: ut re mi fa so la
Guido of Arezzo
Eleventh century monk proposed solmization syllables.
Guidonian Hand
Pedagogical visual aid for remembering the solmization, developed by Guido of Arezzo.
Minstrels, sang secular songs in the middle ages.
Traveling musicians playing secular music.
Troubadours, Trouveres
Poet-composers in the south of France (troub) and the north of France (trouv) in the thirteenth century.
Repeated part between verses of a song.
German school of knightly poet-musicians between 1100-1300
Multiple voices singing separate melodic lines.
Early form of polyphony developed in the 9th century.
Parallel organum
Two voices singing in parallel intervals.
Oblique Organum
Second voice stays static while top voice moves.
Organal voice
Second voice, in addition to the vox principalis
Vox Principalis
Primary voice, as opposed to organal voice.
Ad Organum Faciendum
A set of instructions detailing the composition of organum, dating from about 1100.
Florid/Aquitanian organum
Characterized by two separate voices, the lower of which sustains long notes under the V. Princ.’ lengthy melismas.
Organum Purum, Organum Duplum
More names for Florid.
Note-against note movement in organum.
School of Notre Dame
Development of polyphony in the Cathedral of Notre Dame, primarily by Leonin and Perotin.
Led the school of Notre Dame, compiled the Magnus Liber Organi, a collection of polyphonic settings for existing chant passages.
Likely a student of Leonin, a singer and composer, credited with many clausulae and updating the Magnus Liber.
Rhythmic Modes
Established rhythmic motifs of varying durations.
A section of a chant in discant style.
Clausula of organum, cut loose from it’s larger chant setting. Compare “sequence”
Cantus firmus
Borrowed chant material serving as the tenor part in motet in Latin.
Franconian Motet
3 voices, with the upper voices moving with quicker rhythm than the lower. Layered texture.
Ars Nova
Period of “New Art” in france, early 14th century.
Roman de Fauvel
A narrative poem satirizing the political corruption in France at the time.
Phillipe de Vitry
Composer associated with Ars Nova, wrote many motets in the Roman de Fauvel. Used isorhythm.
Compositional device utilizing a repeating rhythmic idea superimposed with a repeating melodic idea of a different length.
The melodic component of the isorhythm
The rhythmic component of the isorhythm
Guillame de Machaut
b. 1300, Most important composer in 14th cent France. His music typifies the French Ars Nova.
Musical device involving short alternations between two voices. “Hiccup”
Notre Dame Mass
Mass composed in polyphonic tradition, treating the six texts of the Ordinary as one composiition rather than separate pieces, by Machaut.
Mensuration sign
Time signature, circle thing.
Formes Fixes
Established genres of song, including the Virulai, Ballade, and Rondeau
Italian Ars Nova, the 1300s.
Idyllic, pastoral love poems set for two voices. Secular.
Lively canon describing pastoral or chase scenes.
Francesco Landini
Leading Italian composer of the trecento. Composed 140 ballate.
Landini Cadence
Characterized by small dip down from leading tone before resolving to tonic.
Musica ficta
Implied accidentals in music, applied instinctively by singers of the time.
Haut instruments
Bas instruments