Hundred Years’ War
expulsion of english from all but a tiy corner of france
philosophical movement of rennaisance – independent reasoning, study of ancient literature in original language, reliance on original sources
successor to medieval schoasticism
John Dunstable
widely given credit for changing the face of music between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance by introducing new, “sweeter” harmonies. In addition, he was probably the first English composer to have a substantial influence upon continental European music.
Faburden (Fauxbourdon)
3 voice writing found in some English music 15th 16th centuries.
One notated and two implied lines.
Uppermost voice moves parallel to notated voice at p4th
Lowermost voice moves in3rd and P5ths below notated line.
Cantilena Style
15th century motet
features a florid, lyrical top voice over slower moving low voices
Mean-tone Tuning
P5ths are altered to make major and minor thirds more pleasing to the ear
Johannes Tincoris
Belgian Composer
Wrote Terminorum musicae diffinitorium (music dictionary) in 1476 (printed 1495)
Also wrote :Proportionale musices, Liber de arte contrapuncti
Guillaume DuFay
las prominent composer to contribute to the plainchant repertory.
Commissioned 1457 to write music for Mass/Office for a feast day dedicated to Virgin Mary
All of Du Fay’s secular music is French (ballades, rondeaux, virelais)
Philip the Good, reg. 1419–67
6 anonymous settings of “L’homme arme” connected to a manuscript in Naples originated from the Burgundian order of Philip the Good and the Order of the Golden Fleece in connection with a planned crusade against the Turks after 1453.
Gilles Binchois
ca. 1400–60
served Philip the Good of Burgundy
known for secular chansons
Josquin des Prez
Cyclic Mass
Cycle of all movements of the Mass Ordinary integrated by a common cantus firmus.
Cyclic Mass
Cycle of all movements of the Mass Ordinary integrated by a common cantus firmus.
Head motif
Thematic idea that occurs at the beginning of a movement or work and returns prominently throughout the course of the music until the end.
Cantus firmus
“fixed melody” that serves as the basis of a composition. Can be newly composed but is most often derived from existing compositions.
“L’homme arme”
Between the 15th and 17th centuries, over two dozen composers based wowrks on this tune (busnois, ockeghem, tinctoris, des prez). Strong evidence sugggests that composers were almost competing with eachother and that many settings are connected to political events.
white mensural notation
Standard breves are left unfilled.
Eliminated time required to fill note heads
Less wear and tear on paper
Essential elements of mensural notation remained same.
plainchant mass
Either includes a single chant in all movements (Missa Gaudeamus) from an Introit melody, OR from the plainchant Ordinary cycle (MIssa De beata vergine) where each movement is based ona different cantus firmus derived from Ordinary.
soggetto cavato
Mass where the cantus firmus subject (soggetto) is carved (cavato) out of a given word or name. (Missa Hercules Dux Ferrariae- responding to solmization syllables coresponding to the Duke of Ferrara’s name)
Parody/Imitation Mass
Incorporate all voices of an existing work (not just single voice) (Josquin- Missa Fortuna desperata, Missa Malbeur me bat – both based on popular chansons)
Paraphrase Mass
Involves borrowing an existing melodic idea from a diffferent work, but elaborating it freely in all voices. (Josquin- MIssa Pange lingua)
Ottaviano Petrucci
1501, Venice. First music printed with movable type
Harmonice musices odhecaton
Triple impression printing
Missa Pange lingua
Josquin’s last mass
rhythmic value of a line is systematically increased
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
Missa Papae Marcelli convinced Council of Trent not to ban polyphonic music from Roman Catholic liturgy.
First 16th century composer to have his complete works published.
Heinrich Glareanus
(1488–1563) Swiss humanist
Dodekachordon (The 12 String Lyre, 1547)
Added 4 new modes: Aeolian (A), Hyperaeolian, Ionian (C), Hyperionian.
Polyphonic vocal work, usually sacred.
“Absalon, fili mi”
Motet, ascribed to Josquin des Prez, but possibly by Pierre de la Rue.
Illustrates expressive power of motet.
Medley of 3 different bible passages: 2 Samuel 18:33, Job 7:16, Genesis 37:35.
Musica ficta
certain notes were sharped or flatted in performance according to various conventions (cadential leading tones, or avoiding cross-relations between voices)
Simultaneous sounding of two pitches a half step apart
Formes fixes
“Fixed forms” poetic and musical structural patterns in French music of 14th 15th centuries.
Ballade, Virelai, Rondeau
One who writes chansons
“Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen”
Written by Henrich Isaac (1450-1517)
Melody later used in Lutheran Bach Chorale: “O Welt, ich muss dich lassen”
2 versions: Diskantlied: melody in Soprano, Tenorlied: cantus firmus in tenor
Secular Italian vocal genry of late 15th century. Texture is chordal and texts are lighthearted, comical, or ironic.
Bartolomeo Tromboncino
Wrote over 170 Frottole; Killed his wife.
Marco Cara
composer of frottolas, dabbled in spiritual music (Salve Regina, laude spirituali)
“El grillo”
famous song by Josquin des Prez.
3 or 4 manuals, large independant pedal division, 60+ speaking stops.
Each manual controled one or more sets of pipes:
Hauptwerk (The Great)
Brustwerk (the Chest), placed in front of organist
Ruckpositif (Chair) placed under or behind organist’s bench.
valued as expressive because of control player had over contact between stangent and string. Tangent is attached directly to key, so performers can creat vibrato.
Plucked string instrument of the Medieval era.
Fretted, music written in tablature
Bowed string instrument of the Medieval era
Built like guitar, but the neck came off flat for a low bridge.
da braccio – meant to be played held in arm.
da gamba – meant to be held between legs or upright on lap
wind instrument of Medieval era, usually made of wood or animal horns
Krummhorn (Crumhorn)
one of the principal double reed instruments throughout Rennaissance.
Another principal double reed of rennaisance. often played in groups of three, popular for dances and processions.
Developed in variety of ranges
Raucous, bell like a trumpet
Haut, Bas
High, Low
Loud, Soft
o Grifschrift – what to do with your hands
o Tonschrift – what should sound
Claudin de Sermisy
Notable composer of the Parisian chanson (lighter more chordally oriented)
“Tant que vivray”
Vocal composition for 3+ voices, setting mostly secular tests. No connection to 14th century madgrigal.
Similar to frottola, but more textually and musically ambitious. Chordal texture, contrapuntal.
Through-composed: each line of text set to new music, explicit word painting
Francesco Petrarca
Father of Humanism, 14th century poet. 16th century Madrigal picqued interest in his poetry. Bembo raved about his combo of piacevolezza (Pleasingness) and gravita (seriousness) and his rhymes.
Torquato Tasso, Giovanni Battista Guarini
responded to Bembo’s call, used Petrarch poems to provide a rich source of texts for madrigal composers
Torquato Tasso, Giovanni Battista Guarini
responded to Bembo’s call, used Petrarch poems to provide a rich source of texts for madrigal composers
Cipriano da Rore
“Da le belle contrade d’oriente” 1566, exemplifies stylistic changes from midcentury madrigal from earlier madrigals. More imitative, less chordal, five voices. attention to little phrases
Orlando de Lassus
Prolific composer of almost every genre
“Matona mia cara” 1581, good example of villanella. Lighthearted song about a German soldier singing in broken Italian.
Jakob Arcadelt
Il bianco e dolce cigno 1539, god example of early madrigal. Very poetic device filed.
Luca Marenzio
“Solo e pensoso” 1599
example of extremes of word painting
text by petrarch,
Luzzasco Luzzaschi
“T’amo mia vita” illustrates the increasing importance of virtuosity. Not involving word painting at all, written for the Three Ladies of Ferrara.
Fully written harpschord accompaniment.
Fernando di Medici
Grand Duke of Tuscany
1573-1587 a group of poets, musicians, and noblement gathered at house of Count Giovanni De Bardi in Florence to discuss allowing a single voice to predominate in a texture that was not necessarily polyphonic. Called Florentine Camerata (club).
Bardi was asked to organize for 1589 wedding of de Medici to Christine de Lorraine of France. “La Pellegrina” 6 intermedi (entr’actes or intermezzos)
Heinrich Isaac
Served Habsburgs in Austric, Medici in Florence, Emperor Maximilian, and the elector of Saxony.
Brought Franco-Flemish style to the imperial court, influenced German composers.
Worthy of comparison to Josquin.
Most music liturgical.
Wrote tons in every genre. Best known work: “Innsbruck ich muss dich lassen”
Gioseffe Zarlino
wrote “Le istitutioni harmoniche” – The Foundations of Music 1558
Pythagorean Tuning
based on mathematically pure 5ths. Perfect in theory, problematic in practice (5ths consistently perfect, 3rds not- Pythagorean comma)
ancience greece.
Equal temperament
middle of 18th century
graduallybegan to fix various compromises of mean-tone tuning.
Musica Transalpina
Music from across the alps, 1588
Anthology of 57 late 16th century Italian madrigals with texts translated into English.
(included Marenzio, Palestrina, de Monte, and Ferrabosco)
Thomas Morley
1597 – complained about italian madrigals
Now is the Month of Maying
One of the first English composers to adopt style of Italian madrigal
“A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musicke” (1597)
ex: Now is the Month of Maying
almost entirely chordal, very similar to Lassus’ Matona mia cara, a little bit bawdy.
Lute Song
English song type
Closely Related to Madrigal
Chief Composer – John Dowland
Strophic madrigals notated for lute and 1+ voices.
Uppermost voice = most melodic
“Come Heavy Sleep” good example
John Dowland
Motto= “Semper Dowland, semper dolens”
Songs explore theme of melancholy
“Lachrimae”, “Come Heavy Sleep”
Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther, 99 Theses, 1517
Rise of Lutheran Church
Chorales – congregational singing of hymns.
Most early chorales derived from existing melodies (both liturgical and secular)
“Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland” – based on plainchant hymn ‘Veni, Remdemptor gentium”
Over time chorales got more and more harmonized/polyphonic
Johann Walther
• Good example of more sophisticated Chorales
Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott 1551, much like a contemporary Tenorlied – melody in tenor, 3 slightly slower accomp. Voices.
• First generation of composers who wrote specifically for Protestant liturgy
Augsburg Confession
• One of most important documents of Protestant Reformation
• June 25, 1530 – Charles V, Diet of Augsburg
Henry VIII
• (1491-1547) wanted to have his marriage to Catherine of Aragon annulled (no boys) Pope said no, made Church of England.
• Anglican church – he was head, independent of Rome. Break 1527
Book of Common Prayer
• 1549 – first time English began to replace latin as the language of the liturgy
Act of Uniformity
• 1559 – set order of prayer to be used in Book of Common Prayer
• legally required every man to go to church once a week or be fined 12 pence
Full Anthem
• For chorus throughout
Verse Anthem
• Alternates choral passages with passages for solo voice and instrumental accompaniment.
Thomas Tallis
• Prominent composer of anthems 16th century
• 1505-1585
• Verily, Verily I say Unto You – example of earliest full anthem
recalls style of Calvinist Genevan Psalter
William Byrd
• Prominent composer of anthems in 16th century
• Devout Catholic, had to be careful in dealings with royalty
• Wrote several settings of Latin mass, as well as many settings of Englsih texts for Anglican services
• Sing Joyfully Unto God – 6 voice texture, resembles sacred madrigal for chorus.
Paratactic Form
• Any structure that consists of discrete units unrelated to one another musically. Schematically A, B, C, D etc.
Thomas Weelkes
• 1574-1623
• organist at Chicester Cathedral.
• “As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending” – Triumphs of Oriana = great example of word painting.
• Stopped Madrigals for sacred music around 1600
• Luther excommunicated for heresy 1521
• Roman Church could not afford to alienat all German allies, cautious period 1520’s & 30’s
• Pope Paul III convened council of Trent to formulate a counteroffensive to Reformation
Council of Trent
• Three sessions (1545-47, 1551-52, 1562-63)
• Trento, Italy, formulate doctrines of faith, revise liturgy and purge RCC of various practices (like sale of indulgences)
• Eliminated a number of plainchants (added since Medieval times), decided text was purpose of sacred music.
Joseph Fux
• “gradus ad Parnassum” 1725, established reputation of Palestrina’s music as ideal pedagogical model
Instrumental Music
• Intabulations
• Variations
• Abstract works, freely composed no scheme or vocal model
• Dance music
• Composers strove to restate themes in embellished ways to delight and move listeners.
Antonio Cabezon
• “Diferencias sobre el canto de la Dama de demanda”
• 1510-1566, presents melody in uppermost voice and then takes it through 5 variations
• Keyboard music of mid16th century
• Narrow register, melody never far from surface, technically modest
• “to research or seek out”
• freely composed work that seeks out a particular mode or thematic idea.
• Full of runs or passagework.
• Toccare- “to touch”
• Sectional, freely composed work unrelated to any preexistent material.
• Structured on same principles as Toccata, free flights of composer’s imaginative fantasy (English called “fancy”)
Dance Music
• Usually for lute and keyboard, early 16th century
• Tielman Susato’s “Het derde musyck boexken 1551
• Michael Praetorius’ “Terpsichore” 1612
• Slow, courtly dance in duple meter
• Similar to the pavane, but with lighter step
• Lively dance in duple meter with a prominent upbeat at beginning of each section
• Lively dance that often follows a slow one
• Like a saltarello but even more vigorous, with larger leaps by dancers
• Vigorous turning dance (Voltare – turn), compound duple meter
Thoinot Arbeau
• Wrote Orchesographie 1589 – most popular dance manual of Rennaisance
• Strings at right angles to keys
Periodic Phrase Structure
• Music consists of many modular units of equal length.
• Phrases that move from tonic to dominant
• Phrases moving from dominant back to tonic
Binary Form
• Two sections repeated in a row.
Sectional Binary vs. Continuous Binary
• Sectional stops, Continuous doesn’t (notes)
Rounded Binary
• Original theme comes back prominently at the end
Carlo Gesualdo
• “Moro Lasso”
• Prince of Venosa
Killed wife and lover