Amen cadence
a plagal cadence that Renaissance English composers in particular employed giving a piece an emphatic conclusion
sacred vocal composition like a motet but sung in English, in honor of the Lord or invoking the Lord to preserve and protect the English king or queen
Eng. cross/false relation
the simultaneous or adjacent appearance in different voices of two conflicting notes with the same letter name
the final service of the day in the Anglican religion, an amalgam of Vespers and Compline
Morning Prayer
the first service of the day in the Anglican religion, an amalgam of Matins and Lauds
a strophic song with English text intended to be sung by three or four voices in a predominantly homophonic musical style
Thomas Tallis
16th c. English composer; Catholic, Anglican and Puritan sacred music; eight compositions which accomodate most of Parker’s 150 psalm translations
William Byrd
late 16th/early 17th c. English composer; preeminent composer for Queen Elizabeth until her death; also composed music for secret Catholic services
consort song
one of two forms of solo art song in England around 1600; voice is accompanied by a group of independent instruments, usually a consort of viols
English Madrigal School
name given to the composers who fashioned the outpouring of English secular music vocal music, mostly madrigals, in London between 1588 and 1627
lute ayre
one of two forms of solo art song in England around 1600; accompanied by lute and possibly bass instrument; strophic with vocal expressive nuances
variation technique
procedure in which successive statements of a theme are changed or presented in altered musical surroundings; common in Fitzwilliam Virginal Book
Musica transalpina
a 1588 collection of thirty-three Italian madrigals published and translated into English; impetus for the explosion of English madrigal compositions
Thomas Morley
Renaissance English composer; the moving force behind “The Triumphs of Oriana” (collection of madrigals in honor of an aging Queen Elizabeth)
John Dowland
Renaissance English composer; principal composer of lute ayres; signature composition “Flow My Tears” led him to add “de Lacrimosa” to his signature
Giovanni Artusi
conservative music theorist; advocated older style with traditional harmony & counterpoint rules; called Monteverdi’s music harsh & offensive to the ear
concerto delle donne
three female singers employed by duke of Ferrara at the end of the 16th c.; constituted the first professional ensemble of women employed by a court
musica secreta
progressive chamber music reserved for a small, elite audience; describes the performances by the concerto delle donne for the ducal family in Ferrara
secunda pratica
Monteverdi’s term for new text-driven approach to composition; allowed for “deviations” from conventional counterpoint if inspired by an expressive text
Carlo Gesualdo
late Itallian Renaissance aristocrat/composer; famous for his highly chromatic, non-traditional madrigals (and for stabbing his wife and her lover)
Claudio Monteverdi
transitional Mantuan/Venetian composer; interest in dramatictext settings; seen in his late chromatic Renaissance madrigals and early Baroque operas
basso continuo
bass line that provides a cotinuous foundation for the melody above; a small ensemble of usually two instruments that played this support
Doctrine of Affections
a theory of the Baroque era that held that different musical moods could and should be used to influence the emotions of the listeners
figured bass
a numerical shorthand placed with the bass line that tells the player which unwritten notes to fill in above the written bass note
the overarching term for solo madrigals, solo arias, and solo recitatives written during the early Baroque era
a large lute-like instrument with a full octave of additional bass strings descending in a diatonic pattern
elaborate, lyrical song for solo voice; more florid, expansive and melodious than recitative; often sets a short poem made up of one or more stanzas
arioso style
an expressive manner of singing somewhere between a recitative and a full-blown aria
the text of an opera or an oratorio written in poetic verse
a musically heightened speech, often used in an opera, oratorio, or cantata to report dramatic action and advance the plot
simple recitative
operatic vocal technique; narrative in text and speech-like in melody; accompanied by keyboard, minimal number of instruments or basso continuo only
stile rappresentativo
(dramatic or theater style) a type of vocal expression somewhere between song and declaimed speech; first developed in Northern Italy in late 16th c.
strophic variation aria
an aria in which the same melodic and harmonic plan appears, with slight variations, in each successive verse
instrumental piece (usually keyboard) requiring the performer to “touch” instrument with great technical skill; improvisatory and virtuosic in character
Jacopo Peri
late 16th/early 17th c. Italian composer-singer; used new “dramatic style” singing; composed first two operas: Daphne (1598) and Euridice (1600)
Giulio Caccini
late 16th/early 17th c. Italian composer-singer; early opera composer: Orpheus (1602); explained vocal ornamentation in anthology “Le nuove musiche”