Edvard Munch, “The Scream,” 1893-1910
An Expressionist painting
Norwegian artist
Colors: reds, orange/yellow, some blue
subject is looking directly at viewer
blurred figures in the background
Background is morphed… bridge? sky? land? water?
Oscar Kokoschka (1886-1980)
Portraits of Viennese celebrities, nervously animated
Ex: Bride of the Wind (1913, calm faces but crazy surroundings describing the actual emotion, self-portrait)
Sigmund Freud
The underlying raw desires of people
Subconscious/unconscious mind
Freud wanted to study these feelings; expressionists wanted to paint them
Means “tone-color melodies”
Ex: Schoenberg, “Five Pieces for Orchestra” – Farben, 1909
An essay by Schoenberg: “A Principle of Early Atonal Harmony”
Schoenberg, 1911
A textbook written during Schoenberg’s Atonal Period after years of teaching theory
Emancipation of Dissonance
Dissonance started to be thought of as “more remote consonances” and therefore did not NEED to resolve
Breakthrough into dissonance with no possibility of resolution
Permanence in modulation – didn’t have to go back to home key
pantonal/atonal idiom
Ex: Schoenberg, “Erwartung” (Crazy woman, dead lover, woods)
means “basic shape”
Example was “The Atonal Triad”
0 – 1 – 4 (for example, C, C#, E)
Ex: Schoenberg, “Erwartung” – Hier, Henein, 1909
Erwartung’s Grundgestalt was 0-1-4
Style of the “speaking voice”
Created for an actress, Albertine Zehme, who wanted to be the vocalist in Pierrot Innaire but couldn’t sing very well
Example: Schoenberg, “Pierrot Innaire,” 1912
Pantonality (Free Atonality)
Part of “Emancipation of Dissonances” thing
Breakghrough into dissonance with no possibility of resolution
Idea that everything is just one big key
Ex. Debussy
Second Viennese School
Schoenberg, Webern, and Berg became friends because they all were disliked and all wanted to push tonality to its limits
AKA Expressionist school
Schoenberg’s students during early 1900s
Esp. Anton Webern and Alan Berg
Schoenberg, Five Pieces for Orchestra – “Farben,” op. 16 no. 3, 1909
Program notes about expression in piece
Murmuring strings
ominous and haunting
Used Klangfarbenmelodien
Explored timbre
athematic, atonal, no obvious form or design
Schoenberg, “Erwartung” – “Hier, Hinein?,” op. 17, 1909
Example of how to express what is intelligably unknowable
Uses the fourth and the tritone
Its grundgestalt is 0-1-4
Schoenberg, “Pierrot Lunaire” – “Moondrunk,” op. 21, 1912
First two lines are repeated later on
Webern, Three Pieces for Cello and Piano, op. 11, 1914
In three movements
Use of silence is very expressive
Part of the Second Viennese School
Starting and stopping of sound
ABA-ish (slow-fast-slow)
Berg, Wozzeck – Act 3, scene 2
Opera was left incomplete
Based on a play he saw
Plot: hardship, exploitation of the poor
Plot shown through atonality (madness, alienation)
B and F (tritone) represent quarrelling characters
Bb and Db (m3) represent woman and child
Spoken text and accompaniment
Same as sprechtstimme
Ex: Schoenberg, “Pierrot Lunaire,” 1912