quintessential art of the 17th century
Italian for “work”
continuous or near continuous music staged with scenery, costumes, and action
union of poetry, drama, music, and stagecraft
an attempt to recreate a modern form of the ancient Greek tragedy and a blend of existing genres
text of an opera; Italian for “little book”
a play usually in rhymed or unrhymed verse
was an influence on the opera
emphasized the text and was the most important genre of the 16th century and some argued even the Renaissance
madrigal cycle
composers grouped madrigals in a series of to represent a succession of scenes or a simple plot
best known was L’Amfiparnaso by Vecchi
aka madrigal comedy
musical interlude on a pastoral, allegorical, or mythological subject performed between acts of a play
genre began because Renaissance theaters didn’t have curtains that could close between acts
Florentine Camarati
Bardi hosted an academy where scholars held discussions and musicians performed new music
Count Bardi, Galilei, and Caccini were part pf this group
their goal was to enhance message of the text and not just vocal virtuosity
Count Bardi
hosted an academy where scholars held discussions and musicians performed new music that became the Florentine Camarati
Le nuove musiche
“New music”
Caccino wrote numerous songs for solo voice with continuo in 1580s and 1590s and published them under this title
called the songs with strophic texts arias and all the other were called madrigals
foreword in here includes descriptions of vocal ornaments then in use, providing a valuable resources for scholars and singers
Italian for “airs”
In his Le nuove musiche, Caccini called his songs with strophic texts arias
first opera librettist, poet
wrote the poetry to produce one of the first stage works (Dafne) with Peri
wrote libretto for Monteverdi’s L’Arianna
Galilei advocated this
made musical theater possible because it conveyed music with narration, dialogue, and soliloquy (flexible for true dramatic expression)
used by modern historians to embrace all styles of accompanied solo singing of 16th and 17th centuries
monophony is unaccompanied
Dialogue of Ancient and Modern Music
written by Galilei
used Mei’s doctrines to attack vocal counterpoint
he believed that this was chaos and could not convey emotions of the text
only a single line of melody could convey a single line of poetry
style using spoken word, more speech-like
half-sing/ half-reciting style in opera
followed speech accents and speech rhythms closely
invented by Peri
generic term used throughout the 17th century for an abstract ensemble piece, especially one that services as a prelude
also used to facilitate scene changes
introduces Tirsi’s aria in L’Euridice
instrumental refrain follows each stanza
Italian for “small return”
in L’Euridice it echoes the introductory sinfonia
stile concitato
Monteverdi devised this to convey anger and warlike actions
aka concitato genre
characterized by a rapid reiteration on a single note on quickly spoken syllables or in a measured string tremolo
males castrated before puberty to preserve high vocal range because women were prohibited to perform on Roman stage
aka recitative arioso
passage or selection in an opera or other vocal work in a style that lies somewhere between recitative style and aria style
used in Monteverdi’s Poppea
shows his willingness to frequently change styles to reflect the characters and their feelings
only wrote vocal works and music that always perfectly suited the text
inventive in ways to convey emotions; combined genres and styles
first opera: L’Orfeo second: L’Arianna
devised stile conctitato (excited style)
maestro di cappella at St. Marks in Venice till death
published 250 madrigals; helped transform the genre from witty, polyphonic, a cappella part-song of the late Renaissance to powerful explorations of the concertato medium
used strophic variation to reflect accentuation and meaning of the text
best example of madrigal cycle
Orazio Vecchi’s L’Amfiparnaso
Girolamo Mei
scholar that argued that the entire text of a Greek tragedy was to be sung
Jacopo Peri
the first opera is credited to him (Dafne)
The earliest surviving complete opera